To the question "Will there ever final peace on our planet," most people respond negatively. Firstly, the militancy is the nature and linked to natural selection, and secondly, it has played and continues to play an important role in the history of human civilization.
Harvard psychologist Steven Pinker for many years studied the history related to the war and violence and found it reassuring trend: "We are living in the most peaceful era in the history of the human race," - he wrote in his book, "The best part of our nature."
Pinker agrees that militancy and propensity to constant competition, we have inherited from the ancient ancestors never allow to create a "paradise on earth". But the man did not have to be a slave to his genes - he is convinced - as it has the ability to analyze and self-improvement.
Researchers collected and analyzed vast amounts of data related to war, conflict, genocide, torture, domestic violence and even animal abuse, committed in different historical periods. And almost every item found a downward trend:
- the number of murders in modern Europe has decreased since the Middle Ages 10-50 times depending on the region;
- reduced the level of violence associated with the operation of the state machine. These include corporal punishment (amputation of hands for theft, flogging negligent pupils) and the death penalty, particularly relating to torture (quartering, burning);
- slavery and despotism today - residual effects, but 800 years ago, they were norm;
- regards wars, according to Pinker The above data in the pre-state era of them perished on average about 20% of all people.
Of course, the reduction in "sponsored" by the state of violence is not the time - enough to remember the victims of the First and Second world wars and totalitarian regimes of the first half of the last century. However, since the Second World War, there were no military conflict between the major nations of the world, and historians have dubbed this era of "debt world." In addition, the number of victims of smaller conflicts, including civil wars, insurgencies, genocide and terrorist acts also fell.
Over the past 60 years, the number of war victims has decreased from 500 000 to 30 000 per year. As for the victims of terrorists, according to statistics from the person more likely to be killed by lightning than by terrorists.
The reasons for this trend reassuring Pinker considers the following factors:
- countries with democratic regimes rarely go to war with each other, and their number in recent years has increased from 12 to 60 percent;
- a more important role in society began to play a woman;
- with the growth of international trade in the country became more dependent on each other;
- through access to information, and improve the overall level of literacy of people have learned to treat "outsiders" with greater sympathy.
But the main reason for the trend towards universal "pacification" Pinker still considers common sense. We are aware of the devastating effects of violence and try to find a compromise even with those who pose a threat. Thanks to the common sense we have come to the need to protect the rights of women, children, sex, ethnic minorities and other groups of people, often plunges discrimination.