September 15, 1959 in the maiden voyage went nuclear icebreaker "Lenin", a true legend of the twentieth century. "Lenin" - the world's first surface ship nuclear power plant. Glad that the first such Mahina was built exactly to the USSR. The primary task of the icebreaker was the service of the Northern Sea Route. The project was implemented quickly and efficiently, even by the standards of the day - only three years have passed since the bookmark to its implementation and running tests.
In honor of the memorable events - interesting facts about the "Lenin", as well as a selection of archival and contemporary images.
"Nuclear-powered icebreaker" Lenin "was launched on!" - Sounded exactly 55 years reporting another success of our country, which instantly spread all over the world.
The decision on the establishment of nuclear-powered icebreaker to service the Northern Sea Route was adopted by the Government of the USSR in 1953, as the need for such an icebreaker acutely felt.
New icebreaker was innovative for its time. In his design to implement complex task of creating a power plant, a cadre with extraordinary strength and decision automation control nuclear installation.
Foreign delegations visited icebreaker even during its construction and testing. On board visited: Cuban leader Fidel Castro, the British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan and the then US Vice President Richard Nixon.
At the stage of design and construction icebreaker called "Project 92" in honor of the source of nuclear energy uranium present in the periodic table under the 92-th number.
Control and protection systems for the world's first nuclear-powered created at the enterprise "AVEKS", now part of the concern KRET. The famous icebreaker passed on Arctic routes 360 thousand. Km - almost 30 Earth's equator and spent 3741 through the ice boat.
In the development of the engine room there are many difficulties. The period was short, the project is complex, and the extra costs are not allowable. Therefore, for the experiments of designers created a layout of the engine room of wood, to remake something which was not difficult. If any decision is successful, it was transferred to a vessel under construction.
Despite the fact that in the course of construction had to overcome a huge amount of technological difficulties, the new icebreaker was created in an incredibly short time, founded in 1956, and in early 1959 began sea trials.
In order to conduct the court through the ice, to demand more fuel consumption - per hour powerful icebreaker burns up to 3 tons. Fuel was about a third of the weight of the diesel-powered icebreakers, and its reserves enough for no more than 30-40 days.
Nuclear icebreaker spends a day nuclear fuel the size of a matchbox - only 45 grams. Thus, the icebreaker is virtually unlimited navigation area, in one trip, he can visit both in the Arctic and the Antarctic coast.
In June 1971 icebreaker "Lenin" first surface vessels passed north of Severnaya Zemlya. Flight began and ended in Murmansk in Pevek. Thus was prepared the expedition icebreaker "Arktika" to the North Pole in 1977. From this expedition was brought Bear, after the expedition placed in the Leningrad Zoo.
Fundamentally new system control and protection for the first nuclear icebreaker was created in OKB-12, as part of the KRET. In 1947 on the initiative of the collective enterprise academician IV Kurchatov began to establish a system of regulation and protection of nuclear reactors. The system was designed, installed and debugged in just one year. It was used for the world's first nuclear power plant in Obninsk, and later for the first nuclear icebreaker.
All management icebreaker automatically, directly from the wheelhouse. Hence it supports and the desired mode of the "heart" nuclear icebreaker - reactors. Their power was 32, 4 MW, ie about 44 000 liters. c.
He was called "the miracle of industrial design." Cabins on one or two people, the interior was decorated with Karelian birch and Caucasian walnut, sauna, music room with grand piano, library, cinema room, smoking room. "Lenin" was to become the face of not just the Navy, and the whole country.
It is believed that it is due to "Lenin" was fixed expression "peaceful atom." Icebreaker was built at the height of the Cold War and the race for technological superiority, but had absolutely peaceful.
In the logbook, you can see the autographs of Yuri Gagarin, and Alexandra Pakhmutova. Piano icebreaker she first sang a song which later became a hit "Tired submarine."
Next Soviet nuclear icebreaker was built only in 1975. This icebreaker "Arktika", which became the first surface ship of the world to reach the North Pole.
For many decades, "Lenin" was one of the most popular "guests" on the Soviet postage stamp. And since 2007 it "hunting" has numismatists, was released a commemorative gold coin in 1000 rubles, which was depicted dissecans ice icebreaker.
Icebreaker "Lenin" has worked for 30 years and "retired" in 1989, after which he was put on eternal parking in Murmansk.
In the past five years at the famous icebreaker a museum. During this time, met him more than 150 thousand. Visitors. But, interestingly, the ship is still listed in the operational reserve in case of hostilities. According to experienced sailors, if you load the fuel in the reactors, "Lenin" without problems go its course.
In general, we found it and have something to be proud of) 55 years old - the age of the mature, wise and strong man, and what is our "Lenin»;)