Rocket ship-winged Project 903 "Lun"

Modification Lun
Wing span, m 44.00
Length, m 73.80
Height, m ​​19.20
Wing area, m2 550.00
Weight, kg
empty aircraft 243000
maximum takeoff 380000
Engine Type 8 NC-87 turbojet
Thrust, kgs 8 x 13000
The maximum speed, km / h 500
Practical range, km 2000
Flight height on the screen, m 1-5
Nautical, points 5-6
Crew 10
Armament: 6 PU RCC ZM-80 Mosquito

Lun has eight engines kb Kuznetsova.Takie same bet on IL-62 if I'm not mistaken, though here their naval variant, plus rotary nozzle
Engine Type 8 NC-87 turbojet
Thrust, kgs 8 x 13000

Housing WIG functionally divided lengthwise into four parts (the district): nasal, middle, and aft keel area and the stabilizer. In the fore part (rooms with equipment and structures, enabling the movement of PSE), are pilot house for the crew, pylon, IA which houses the main engines, and facilities in the area of ​​the pylon with auxiliary engines and propulsion systems; in the middle (the premises of the nose to the middle building) - Equipment for testing, and combat ?, as well as a galley, toilet, cabin crew, in "Stern (from the middle of the hull in the stern) - yet also filled with test equipment; in the area of ​​the keel - elektroenergetichsskaya installation for electricity WIG parked, complex electronic equipment for navigation, communications. In the cross fin and stabilizer at a height of 12 m from the waterline located premises arrow.

Ground effect - it's the same airbag, formed only by air injection is not specific devices, and incident flow. That is, the "wing" of these devices creates a lifting force is not only due to the negative pressure over the top plane (as in "normal" aircraft), and additionally due to the increased pressure under the lower plane, which is only possible to create a very low altitudes (from a few centimeters up to several meters) This height is commensurate with the length of the mean aerodynamic chord (MAR) of the wing. Therefore the wing at WIG try to perform with slight elongation.

The effect of the screen is connected with the fact that the perturbation (pressure) of the wing reaches the ground (water) are recorded and time to get to the wing. Thus, the increase in pressure under the wing gets more. The propagation velocity of a pressure wave, of course, equal to the speed of sound. Accordingly, the manifestation of ground effect starts with

h & lt; (lxV) / 2v

where l - the width of the wing (wing chord), V - speed of sound, h - the height of flight, v - speed of flight.

The more MAR wing lower airspeed and altitude - the higher the screen effect.
For example, the maximum flight range ekranolёta "Oriole" at the height of 0, 8 m is 1150 km, and at a height of 0, 3 meters with the same load - already 1480 km.

Traditionally, the flight speed near the ground is considered to be the height of the action of the screen half of the wing chord. This gives a height of about a meter. But sufficiently large WIG flight altitude "on screen" can reach 10 meters or more.

The center of pressure (common point of application of force), the screen effect is closer to the trailing edge, center of pressure "regular" lift - closer to the front edge, so the more input screen in total lifting force, the more the center of pressure moves back. This causes problems of balancing. Changing the pitch changes the balance, change of speed - too. The bank is a diagonal shift of the center of pressure. Therefore, management ekranoplan requires specific skills.
This view from under the wing flaps or their right nazyvat.Posle lowering them: it is the position they occupy, then the engine blow the air under the wing, winged rises out of the water and starts to move.

View of the left wing

These things are so massive and made on shipboard, that's amazing.

Dignity and proper WIG ekranolёtov (WIG aerodynamic ground differs from that can come off the screen and climb to higher altitudes)

* High tenacity
* Sufficiently high speed
* WIG at high efficiency and a high load capacity compared with the aircraft, as the lifting force is added to the force generated by ground effect.
* WIG in speed, combat and lifting characteristics superior hovercraft and hydrofoils
* No small importance for military stealth WIG on radar due to flight at a height of several meters, high-speed, immunity to antiship landmines
* WIG is not important for the type of surface, creating the effect of the screen - they can be moved over the frozen water surface, snowfields, over bad roads, etc. Etc .; as a consequence, they can move on "direct" route, they do not need the ground infrastructure, bridges, roads, and so on. d.
* Modern ekranolёty much safer than conventional aircraft, in case of malfunction in flight amphibian can sit on the water even in heavy seas. And it does not require taking any preplant and maneuvers can be carried out simply dump gas (eg in case of engine failure). Also very often the fault of the engine is not as dangerous for large WIG view of the fact that they have multiple engines, separated at the start and the marching band, and engine trouble marching band can be compensated for the launch of one of the engines starting group.
* Ekranolёty are bezaerodromnoy aviation - for takeoff and landing they need not specially prepared runway, but only enough water area size or flat area of ​​land


* One of the serious obstacles to the regular operation of WIG is that the place of the intended flight (along the river) very precisely coincides with the areas of maximum concentration of birds
* Management ekranoplan differs from aircraft control and requires specific skills
* WIG "bound" to the surface and can not fly over the rough surface; this deficiency deprived ekranolёt
* Though the flight "on the screen" and is associated with less energy consumption than that of the aircraft, but the procedure requires more starting Thrust comparable to that of the transport plane, and accordingly the use of additional start engines at idle marching mode (for large WIG), or Special modes for starting the main engines, which leads to additional consumption of fuel

In recent history with WIG got quite
unexpected turn. After analyzing the prospects of this kind
technology and came to the conclusion that significant, to say the lag
works (for the actual lack thereof) in
ekranoplanostroeniya, the US Congress created a special commission,
designed to develop a plan of action to eliminate. Members suggested to seek help for themselves ...
Russian and went directly to the CDB by the SEC. Manual last
notify the Moscow and obtained permission from
State Committee and the Ministry of Defence to hold talks with
Americans under the auspices of the Commission on Export Control
weapons, military equipment and technology Defense Ministry. And in order not to attract
too much attention to the subject of negotiations, inquisitive Yankees
use the services offered by the American firm
neutral name (RAS), and at its
mediation delegation overseas specialists received
opportunity to visit the CDB by the SEC, meet with designers
WIG, find out as much as possible, interesting details. Then
Russian side has kindly agreed to organize a visit
American researchers base Kaspiysk, where they could not
restrictions on detail capture photos and videotape prepared to
flight especially for this visit.

Who was part of the US? Head
delegation - US Air Force Colonel Francis, who heads the program
creating promising tactical fighter. Under his
were prominent experts from research centers, including
including NASA, as well as representatives of the aircraft companies
America. Among them, the most famous person was Burt Rutan,
designed the unconventional aircraft aerodynamic configuration
In which a few years ago, his brother committed
non-stop round the world flight. In addition, the delegation,
According to those present at the show representatives of Russian
competent authorities include persons on duty for years
collecting all possible ways information about Soviet
ekranoplans first and suddenly able to see
with my own eyes - and even touch - the object of his intense

As a result of these visits that cost the American
taxpayers only 200 thousand dollars, our new friends
can save several billion and significantly, by 5 - 6 years,
reduce the time of drafting their own WIG.
US officials put the question on the organization of joint
activities to eliminate its backlog in this area
The ultimate goal - the creation of troop-WIG takeoff
weighing up to 5,000 tons for US rapid reaction forces. On
the entire program may require 15 billion dollars What part of this
amount can be invested in the Russian science and industry - and will be invested in general - is unclear With this organization
negotiations when received 200 thousand dollars does not cover the cost
CDB and the pilot plant of 300 million. Rubles to bring to
flight status, count on mutually
cooperation is not necessary

Doubts about the usefulness of such contacts for state
interests of Russia and the response suggests a responsible official of the Commission
export control of arms, military equipment and technology MO
RF Andrew Logvynenko an unexpected appearance for him Kaspiysk
(Simultaneously with the Americans) members of the press. Officially
citing security reasons ('), he tried to ban
reporters entrance to the base, and in the ensuing private conversation
explained that its task is preventing information leakage in
printing of Russian-American contacts about WIG and
added that after the departure of the Americans, we can take that and write
anything, but made no mention of the American visit to the former
secret facility.

From this we can assume that things unknown to our probable opponent in this paradoxical technique anymore.
Let's look at these beautiful lines, like a speedboat

This special zatsita (electro-chemical) corrosion korpusa.Isklyuchitelno often used in shipbuilding

To soften the landing used gidrolyzha.Blagodarya this WIG can take off and land with waves up to 5 meters

Constructions WIG

In designs WIG can distinguish two schools: the Soviet (Rostislav Alexeev) with straight wings and west (Alexander Lippisch) with a delta wing (angle back, ie forwardswept) with severe reflux cross Scheme V. RE Alekseev requires more work stabilization, but allows to move with greater speed and at Jets mode.

Scheme Lippisch includes means for reducing the excess stability (forward-swept wing and reverse cross-V), which reduces the disadvantages of balancing WIG in a small size and velocity.

The third proposal was the tandem circuit diagram G.Yorga (FRG) [1], however, despite a number of advantages (automatic stabilization) has no followers yet.

Also the idea of ​​using ground effect vessels with dynamic air cushion. Unlike WIG height of their flight even lower, but compared with hydrofoils and hovercraft they can have more speed with less energy.



See also

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