Interesting facts about metals

Swiss company Valcambi produces gold bullion Combibar in forms resembling a bar of chocolate. Their main advantage over usual ingots is that a tile can be easily broken into segments 1 gram and used as a gift or an alternative payment means. Besides gold, the company produces these products from silver, platinum and palladium.

According to the recommendations of the International Olympic Committee, Olympic gold medal must contain at least 6 grams of pure gold in the form of application. As a rule, the organizers of the Games do not increase this figure, so the gold medal in the physical sense, mostly silver. Thus, in the medals higher test London 2012 Olympic gold content is slightly more than 1%.

Some metal alloys, such as nitinol (55% nickel and 45% titanium), inherent shape memory effect. It lies in the fact that the deformed product of such a material when heated to a certain temperature reverts to its original shape. This is due to the fact that these alloys have a special internal structure called martensite, possessing the property of thermoelasticity. In the deformed parts of the structure there are internal stresses which tend to return the structure to its original state. Shape memory materials are widely used in the production - for example, to couplings that are at very low temperature compressed, and at room - straightened, forming a connection much more reliable welding.

For a long time the value of the coins was equivalent to the amount they contain metal. In this regard, there was a problem - crooks cut small pieces of metal from the edges to make them new coins. Solution proposed by Isaac Newton, who was concurrently employees of the British Royal Mint. His idea was very simple - to cut the edges of the coins in small lines, because of which stёsannye edge would be immediately noticeable. This part of the coins issued in this way and to this day is called a herd.

In the entire history of mankind was produced 165,000 tonnes of gold (as of end of 2009), with half of this amount - in South Africa. If you cast it into a single bar, get a cube with a side of only 20 meters - for example, he would easily together entirely in the sports complex "Olympic". A number of iron, equal to all mankind mined gold is extracted from the bowels of the earth in about 45 minutes.

Gold in its pure form without impurities is so soft that it can be scratched with a fingernail. Therefore, gold jewelry is always alloyed with copper or silver.

French Artist Michel Lotito famously ate absolutely inedible things. At its submissions it absorbs bicycles, televisions and other items made of glass, metal and rubber. Once he disassembled aircraft Cessna 150 and two years ate it piecemeal. Before the performance, he "smeared" stomach mineral oil, and during the process of drinking large amounts of water. It is estimated that during his career he has absorbed nearly nine tons of metal.

The cost of production of all Russian coins to 5 rubles inclusive exceeds the face value of these coins. For example, the cost of minting 5-penny coin is 71 kopecks.

Wintering horsetail growing in central Russia, have extremely hardness. In the walls of its outer cells accumulate silica, and its green stalks may scratch the surface of the steel.

Miners medieval Germany found a red mineral resembling copper ore. However, to extract copper from it failed, what miners accused mischievous spirit of nickel and iron ore called Kupfernickel (Kupfer German copper). In 1751, Baron Cronstedt again tried to extract copper from kupfernikelya, but the result has opened a new white metal, which later was named nickel.

Steel for the American satellites that measure the cosmic radiation had to get out of the flooded in 1919, the ship "Kronprinz Wilhelm" because background radiation from steel manufactured after 1945 is too large.

Platinum in Spanish literally means "serebrishko." Explains such disparaging name given to this metal conquistadors exclusive platinum refractoriness that resisted melting, long time no use and valued twice lower than silver. Who in the world exchanges platinum more expensive silver is about 100 times.

Because of the scarcity of metal during World War II British engineer Geoffrey Pyke proposed to build an aircraft carrier of the new composite material paykerita (18-45% sawdust and 82% water ice). It was assumed that this ship was to act in the cold Arctic waters and to take on board up to 200 aircraft. However, the war ended more quickly than the first such aircraft carrier out to sea.

The gold content in the ash resulting from combustion of dry sewage sludge Japanese city of Suva, more than 50 times that of the best gold mines. Experts explain this by the fact that the city is located in a lot of electronics factories, the production of which is widely used gold and gold-bearing alloys. Installations for the recovery of precious metal are already working.

The set of chemical elements have received its name in honor of the country or other geographical features. Immediately 4 elements - yttrium, ytterbium, terbium and erbium - were named after the Swedish village of ytterbium, near which found a large deposit of rare earth metals.

When roasting arsenic cobalt minerals emit volatile poisonous arsenic oxide. Ore containing these minerals, miners received the name of a mountain spirit Kobold. Ancient Norse poisoning attributed smelters during the melting of silver antics of this evil spirit. In honor of him, and called himself the metal cobalt.

On the orders of Napoleon III were fabricated aluminum utensils that were served at a gala dinner to the Emperor and the most honored guests. Other guests at the same time to use the instrument of the traditional precious metals - gold and silver.



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