Antarctica is a little different from Mars. Is that more oxygen. A cold is the same. In some places the temperature drops to minus 90 degrees Celsius. The principal difference is one - in Antarctica, there are people, and on Mars yet. But this does not mean that the ice continent studied much better than the Red Planet. Riddles missing here and there ...
We do not know whether there is life on Mars. We do not know what is hidden under a layer of Antarctic ice many kilometers. And that is happening on the surface, have only a vague idea.
Surprisingly, the images of Mars in high resolution more than Antarctica. See the details of its relief is possible only on a narrow strip near the Queen Mary Land, where there were surprises. And it would not be a bad look to other places. Especially the ones about which a legend for a long time.
The discovery belongs to Joseph Skipper, a well-known virtual archaeologist from the United States. Usually he "digs" on Mars and on the moon, looking at pictures, sent out spacecraft and posted on the official websites of NASA and other space agencies. There are many surprising - that falls sharply from traditional ideas.
The collection of researchers have objects like bones and skulls humanoids. And such that (a stretch, of course) can be mistaken for the remains of their - humanoid - civilized activity.
This time, an archaeologist interested in the Earth - specifically Antarctica. And found just three oddities - hole, "plate" and the lake.
I walked in the footsteps of Skipper and found them all detected objects. Their coordinates are known, they are clearly visible on satellite images of the ice continent on this site Google Earth.
"Progress»: 99o43'11, 28''E; 66o36'12, 36 ''S
"Lake»: 100o47'51, 16''E; 66o18'07, 15 ''S
"Flying Saucer» 99o58'54, 44''E; 66o30'02, 22 ''S
The "hole" opened by Joseph Skipper
According to Skipper, on the icy continent, there is a whole underground city. And proof of this is the lake with liquid water in the ice of Antarctica, as well as a huge "Progress" is located on the icy continent. But who could build it all in a terrible cold? The answer to this question, in the opinion Skipper gives a third of his find - a huge "dish", which probably belongs to aliens.
I hide there HITLER
It is known that the Nazis were very interested in Antarctica. Shells to a number of expeditions. And even staked out a vast territory in the area of Queen Maud Land, naming it New Swabia.
There in 1939 on the coast of the Germans found a striking area of about 40 square kilometers ice-free. With a relatively mild climate, with numerous ice-free lakes. He was named Schirmacher Oasis - on behalf of the German pilot-discoverer. Subsequently, here is the Soviet polar station Novolazarevskaya.
Officially, the Third Reich went to Antarctica to build a framework for the protection of their whaling fleets. But there is much more interesting suggestion. Although they even science fiction is difficult to call. Pile some mystics.
In short, the story is. Allegedly, during expeditions to Tibet Nazis learned that in Antarctica is something there. Some are large and warm cavities. And in them something left or from the aliens, whether from once living there ancient advanced civilization. At the same time in a separate bike argued that Antarctica was once Atlantis.
As a result, in the late 30s of last century German submarines found a secret passage in the ice. And get inside - in these same cavity.
Further legends diverge. According to one version, the Nazis built their cities under the ice, on the other - have conspired with the local inhabitants, and settled in the free housing stock.
There - inside the ice continent - in 1945 was taken to live with a live Hitler Eva Braun. Allegedly, he sailed on a submarine accompanied by a large escort - an entire squadron of huge submarines (8 pieces), entitled "The convoy of the Fuhrer." And he lived until 1971. And according to some estimates, as many as up to 1985.
The authors of the myths is placed under the Antarctic ice, and "flying saucer" of the Third Reich, rumors of which are impregnated with numerous books, movies, TV shows and the Internet. Like, these devices are also Nazis hid inside. Then they perfected and still operate, starting from the mines in Antarctica. And UFOs - these are the most "plate».
"Plate" - whether an alien, whether German
For stories about polar aliens and Germans is difficult to treat in any way seriously. But ... What do I do with a hole, "plate" and lakes, discovered by Joseph Skipper? Oh very good one falls on another. Unless, of course, the objects are, what they look like.
From a hole in the mountains may depart UFOs. "Plate" - is real. Maybe even an alien. It looks icy. And if bared as a result of the global warming, or weathering. It belongs to those children who lived or live in the interior of Antarctica warm cavities.
The lake on the surface of Antarctica
But the lake - it's just evidence that they - space - is. And to warm oases. Like Schirmacher Oasis, which is far from the only one.
Antarctica is generally a strange place ...
By the way, the lake and the "East" is not free from the tales. On its western side discovered a strong magnetic anomaly. This is - a scientific fact. But the nature of the anomaly has not been determined. What gives the right to ufologists, at least temporarily, to assert that there is a massive metal object. Specifically - a huge alien ship. Maybe it crashed. Maybe thrown millions of years ago when the lake was not yet ice may be acting and just parked.
It looks like the ice above Lake Vostok. On the left edge - the magnetic anomaly and strange dunes. On the right bank - the station "Vostok»
Unfortunately, the magnetic anomaly is located far from the well - at the opposite end of the lake. And it is unlikely to solve soon succeed. If anything ever happens.
At Vostok station in Antarctica our researchers at a depth of 3 768 thousand meters finished drilling and reached the surface of the subglacial Lake
We already know that Lake Vostok is not only in Antarctica. Similar - more than a hundred. East - just the largest of the open. Now researchers suggest that all of these lakes, hidden under the ice, communicate with each other.
The existence of an extensive network of subglacial rivers and canals, British scientists recently reported - Uinghem Duncan (Duncan Wingham) from University College London (University College London) and colleagues - published by the relevant article in the prestigious scientific magazine Nature. Their findings are based on data obtained from satellites.
Uinghem says: subglacial channels as affluent as the Thames.
Mystery Lake Vanda. This salt lake, all year round, it is covered with ice. But what is striking: the thermometer dipped into the water at a depth of 60 m shows ... 25 degrees! Why is that? Scientists do not yet know this. Perhaps Antarctica will present many more of these mysteries.
Laugh laugh, but the opening of British scientists is not contrary to the most delusional versions of the hidden life of the Antarctic. On the contrary, it reinforces them. After all, a network of canals, located at a depth of about 4 kilometers under the ice skinny, one can communicate with other cavities. Serves as a road that in a certain place can have access to the ocean. Or input.
Queen Maud Land - a vast area along the Atlantic coast of Antarctica that lies between 20 ° West and 44 ° 38 'east longitude. The area - about 2.5 million square kilometers. The area covered by the Antarctic Treaty.
The treaty prohibits the use of Antarctic territory for any purpose other than research. On the territory of the Queen Maud Land has several research stations, including the Russian station "Novolazarevskaya" station and the German "Neumayer»
Antarctica was discovered in the distant 1820. However, her first in-depth study of the system and only began a century later. And most interested researchers ice continent were the representatives of Nazi Germany. In 1938-1939, the Germans fitted out to the continent two powerful expedition.
Luftwaffe detail photographed large areas and dropped to the mainland thousands of metal pennons with swastika. Responsible for the operation, Captain Ritscher reported personally to General Field Marshal Goering, is at that time the head of the Ministry of Aviation and the first man in the Air Force:
"Every 25 kilometers of our planes dumped pendants. We covered an area of approximately 8.6 million square meters. Of these, 350 thousand square meters was photographed ».
Surveyed area called New Swabia and declared part of the future thousand-year Reich. Actually, the name was not chosen by chance. Swabia - medieval duchy, later became part of the unified German state.
Nazi activity in this area, of course, did not escape from the Soviet intelligence service, as evidenced by a unique document stamped "Top Secret". January 10, 1939 he went to the table to the Deputy Commissar of the NKVD, the chief of the Main Directorate of State Security Vsevolod Merkulov.
It reported an unknown intelligence about his trip to the Reich the following: & quot; ... At the present time, according to Gunther, the party in Tibet works of German researchers. The result of one of the groups ... allowed the Germans to equip a scientific expedition to Antarctica in December 1938. The aim of this expedition is to find the so-called German city of gods, hidden under the ice of Antarctica in the area of Queen Maud Land ... & quot;
"Lake»: 66o18'07, 15 ''S; 100o47'51, 16''E. 1. Queen Maud Land and Schirmacher oasis. 2. Anomalies in the world Queen Mary - is found "move", "plate" and "lake».
There is much evidence that in the central region of the Antarctic ice cap there are places where the bottom surface thereof, apparently, there is water. Researcher Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences Igor Zotikov talked about how he had in 1961, analyzed the data about the ice sheet of Antarctica Central produced during the first four Soviet expeditions.
The results of this analysis show that the central region are in conditions where the heat transfer from the lower surface of the ice-up due to its large thickness is very small. In this regard, the entire flow of heat from the earth can not be fully retracted from the interfaces "ice - hard bed", part of it must constantly spend on a continuous melting at this boundary.
It was concluded: the melt water in the form of a relatively thin film is extruded in a place where the ice thickness is less. In separate recesses ice box, this water can accumulate in the form of meltwater lakes.
In May 1962 the newspaper "Izvestia" wrote: & quot; ... It is believed that under the ice of Antarctica, an area almost equal to the area of Europe, the sea poured fresh water. It should be rich in oxygen, which is delivered in a gradually sinking depth of the upper layers of ice and snow. And it may very well be that this subglacial sea has its own, very peculiar life ... & quot;
- In Antarctica, there are still unexplored areas, - says Sergey Bulat, a senior researcher at the Department of Molecular and Radiation Biophysics of the St. Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics. - Subglacial structure is very diverse, this is the usual continental terrain, where there are mountains, lakes, and more. Between the continents and ice there is a niche, but not empty, they are filled with water or ice.
However, in my opinion, the existence of a separate civilization under the ice cap is not possible. After all, the ice thickness in the central Antarctic more than three kilometers. Survive there anything easily. Do not forget that the average temperature on the surface of the continent's minus 55 degrees. Although under the ice, of course, the heat - about 5-6 degrees below zero, yet life there is unlikely.
The area of Antarctica - about 14 million square kilometers. Nearly the entire continent is covered in ice. In some places it reaches a thickness of 5 kilometers. And what is underneath, we only know about a tiny portion of the surface.
A team of scientists from China, Japan and the United Kingdom recently published in the journal Nature the results of their four-year studies. From 2004 to 2008, they went on the powerful ATVs on the most severe of Antarctica - over the mountains Gamburtseva. And transmission of his radar. The result was a relief map of the surface area of about 900 square kilometers.
And it turned out that once the continent was free of ice. Another 34 million years ago it housed the mountains and plains with flowering meadows. As it is now in the European Alps.
But something happened. Researchers have found a place from which a small glacier, located on the highest peak (2,400 meters), began to grow. Gradually, he covered the entire Antarctic. I hide under a layer of ice several lakes.
Zaygert Martin of the University of Edinburgh, who took part in the expedition, is sure in the Antarctic valleys of the Alps are still preserved frozen plants. Even small trees. Only hardly get access to them. But taste is possible, for example by drilling.
In Antarctica, at least four poles. In addition to the geographic and magnetic South, here it is also cold pole and pole winds.
In Antarctica, there are those who do not have nowhere to frost on the ground. August 25, 1958 at the station "Vostok" was recorded temperature of 87, 4 degrees below zero.
A Pole winds? It is located on the Antarctic Victoria Land. All year round there are rampant violent winds. Often the flow rate of the air force exceeds 80 meters per second, which leaves behind the strongest tropical cyclones ...
Vmёrzshy to ice the aircraft in Antarctica near the Russian station Novolazarevskaya
And what is under the ice of the continent? As a result of the deep drilling at a depth of one and a half kilometers away, scientists found clear traces of volcanic eruptions and deposits of iron ore. There have already been found diamonds, uranium, gold and rhinestone. Every year brings researchers to the Antarctic continent new puzzles.
"White" white spots on the mainland, there are fewer. However, while experts working on a map, they saw a lot of the unexpected. And pretty smash his head in order to explain what he saw.
Volcanoes in the ice
This place is in the west of the Antarctic polar explorers is well known - are repeatedly visited the expedition.
But if you stand on the surface, no "circles in the ice" can not see - the usual snow-covered plain. However, satellite imagery found just such a convex anomaly. It turned out that it is an extinct volcano. They are many in Antarctica. And it proves once again that the sixth continent of our planet was not always icebound.
Noah frozen in the ice?
And this picture will appeal to fans of all abnormal. Picture extraordinarily similar to the remains of Noah's Ark, which, as we are assured, petrified on the slopes of Mount Ararat (see. Photo below). In fact, this area of the Dry Valleys - the only place in Antarctica, free from snow.
As the flow of the river ice
These pictures are often seen archeologists. With aerial photography, they define the contours of the ancient listed towns with sand or earth.
And something similar was found in Antarctica. Alas, this is not the ruins left by a mysterious civilization. A "river" - ice stream that moves at a speed of several hundred meters per year. And if at the bottom of the river there are some obstacles facing the river or two, then begin swirls as in this photo.
Now there are 50 Antarctic polar research stations from 20 countries of the world. Russia has 6 permanent stations and two seasonal.