Mysteries of the Universe (10 photos)

The space is quite a lot of unusual objects: planetary orbits, stars are born and die, supermassive black holes swallow matter around them, and more, that does not cease to haunt the human mind.

Nebula «Red Square»

Most heavenly bodies have a spherical or round shape: planets, stars, galaxies, and other orbit. But there is in the universe and the more unusual space objects, for example, MWC 922, or nebula "Red Square", which caused confusion and created a lot of controversy among scientists and astronomers.

However, the bipolar nebula MWC 922 is actually not quite square. If you look closely at the picture above, you will see that bright light beams intersect to form two cones, which are in contact peaks, but in the night sky are also unlikely to find objects correctly triangular shape. The nebula an hourglass so bright because its very center, according to scientists, is the star, hidden by a dense ring of dust and gas. According to the second version, the nebula could be formed as a result of a supernova, causing the ring at the base of the cones to shine with startling intensity.

Pillars of Creation

Douglas Adams wrote: "Cosmos large. Really big. You just will not believe how great it is striking and immensely varied. " We all know that the unit of measurement of distance in space is a light year. Just think, a light year - the distance is so great that not even light, faster than which there is nothing in the universe can not move, it takes a year to overcome it.

This means that watching space objects in the universe, which in fact is far from us, such as the Pillars of Creation (education in the Eagle Nebula, also known as Object Messier 16, M16, or NGC 6611), we literally look in the past. How is this possible? As you know, we see things through the perception of the light reflected from them. Light from NGC 6611, it takes about 7,000 years to reach Earth; This means that we are watching the Eagle Nebula, see it for what it was seven thousand years ago.

For example, astronomers believe that the formation of the "Pillars of Creation" were destroyed by the explosion of a supernova even 6000 years ago, but as the light to reach our planet requires a lot of time, we still can observe this phenomenon in the night sky, although it no longer exists in the universe.

Collision of galaxies

Bodies in space are in constant motion. Because of this, and because of the huge gravitational attraction exists between them, galaxies tend to collide with each other on a regular basis. It sounds probably not very surprising, though, if I think of it, it turns out that when two galaxies containing billions of stars collide together in the universe happens chaos, right?

Not really. When galaxies likelihood that the two stars will face each other, is virtually zero. The reason is that the space between the stars (the size of which, moreover, is very small compared with the average distance between them) in galaxies is not empty: it contains gases and dust. These are matter and will interact with each other, when galaxies collide with each other.

The problem horizon

Space - is one big puzzle, everywhere you look. As the astronomical observations microwave background radiation has a uniform temperature in all parts of the universe, despite the fact that the distance between the extreme points observed from the earth, is 28 billions of light years!

It seems impossible, because nothing can travel faster than the speed of light, but even light simply did not have time to overcome that distance during the existence of the universe (14 billion. Years). The question arises: how in outer space established a homogeneous isotropic distribution of matter, whereas there is among its regions there is not any interaction?

This explains the theory of inflation, according to which the universe expanded from ekspontsialno micron point to the size of a few light years in just a fraction of a second after the Big Bang. This assumption does not contradict the law of the speed of light, because, in fact, no movement and it was not. The universe just swollen; that is why its properties, in particular, we are talking about the temperature remained unchanged.

As the black hole kills you

Black holes are incredibly huge, and approach them very dangerous for the simple reason that they have a huge gravitational force.

As you know, the closer you are to the source of the force of attraction, the more you feel its impact. For example, when you are flying to a black hole feet first, the force of gravity at the bottom of your torso becomes much larger than the top. As a result, your body begins to stretch until, ultimately, it does not break into atoms, and it's not as if you tied by the feet to the departing car, and hands to the wall.

The cells of the brain and the universe

Just recently, physicists have modeled the process of how originated our Universe, from the Big Bang and ending with the subsequent events that determined its present form - bright yellow cluster of densely packed galaxies located in the center, and "web" less dense galaxies, stars, dark matter and other things.

Meanwhile, a student at Brandeis University (USA), who studied the connections between neurons, considering the thin slices of mouse brain under the microscope, found that it consists of a neuron yellow and red "spider" processes and endings. Nothing like?

Both images, despite the differences in scale (a nanometer in comparison with light-years), bear a striking resemblance. I wonder what could it mean?

The missing baryons

According to the theory of the Big Bang, all matter in the universe ever create sufficient gravity to slow the expansion of the universe to its complete cessation.

It is known that up to 10% of all the matter needed to gradually slow the expansion of the universe is composed of baryonic matter (forms stars, planets, galaxies, nebulae, and everything else that is visible), the basis of which are baryons - heavy elementary particles, including protons, neutrons and electrons. The remaining particles, such as neutrinos, can provide the remaining mass ("dark matter" - the astronomical objects that we can not see), necessary for the complete cessation of expansion of the universe. A possibly can not. Whatever it was, astronomers have some problems even counting the exact number of baryons. Supposedly, the stars, gas and dust in galaxies form no more than 40% of the baryons that formed after the Big Bang. Q: What happened to the rest?

According to one of the most common theories, the missing baryons are hidden in the diffuse gas in the intergalactic medium, but even count their number, astronomers have found that it is still insufficient. This can be explained by the fact that most of the gas in intergalactic space is ionized, ie, they do not absorb light. But until then these explanations no theory advanced.

Cold Star

Recently, astronomers have discovered a star that belongs to the brown dwarfs of spectral class Y - the coldest in the universe. The temperature of the surface of the Y-dwarfs less than the temperature of the human body - just 27 degrees Celsius.

Such star is extremely easy to detect because they practically do not emit visible light. Behind them can only be observed in the infrared range.

The problem of heating of the solar corona

The farther away an object is from the source of heat, the colder it is. That is why the interesting fact that the surface temperature of the Sun is 2760 degrees Celsius, and its crown - 200 times greater in some areas.

None of the scientists can not yet explain the reason for such a huge difference in temperature. Many believe that this is due to the small patches of magnetic field that appears and disappears, or even change the position on the surface of the sun. Since the magnetic lines can not be crossed, these blotches whenever rapprochement reordered, causing heating of the solar corona. But in this version, there are many things that professionals do not fully understand, for example: how many last specks are, let alone how they heated the solar corona.

The black hole in the constellation Eridanus

Hubble Deep Space Field - is an image obtained by pointing the telescope at the "empty" space in the constellation Eridanus. This huge mysterious black hole with a diameter of more than a billion light-years, is scientifically called "Enter" (translated to English - emptiness) - the space where there is absolutely nothing: no stars no gas, no galaxies, and even dark matter.

According to a controversial theory sign contains a supermassive black hole, which rotates around itself in an orbit at high speed galactic clusters, creating "the illusion" of the expanding universe. Another theory states that all matter once merged into one, forming galactic clusters, and subsequently - and voids between them.

While these theories are merely conjecture. Perhaps someone would still be able in time to solve the mystery of this phenomenon.


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