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The principle of cardiopulmonary bypass
Heart-Lung Machine - a device that provides the optimal level of blood circulation and metabolism in the body of the patient, or in an isolated organ; It is designed to serve as a temporary heart and lungs.






Thus, the heart-lung machine includes a set of related systems and units. First of all, it's "artificial heart" - the pump - which pumps blood to the volume required for the sustenance of the speed of blood flow.
Gas exchange device ("artificial lung" or oxygenator) saturates the blood with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide and maintains the acid base balance in the physiological range. The construction of oxygenators is based on one of the four principles of blood oxygen saturation: bubble, film, foil and foam through a semi-permeable synthetic membranes.

Expanding the boundaries of Moscow
In Moscow will be expanded to 2, 35 times, 144 thousand hectares.




According to the mayor of Moscow, Sergei Sobyanin, the capital will be more in 2, 35 times - from 107 thousand to 251 thousand hectares. The expansion will take place at the expense of areas bounded by the Kiev and Warsaw highway, and the big ring of the Moscow railway.
This choice by the press service of the Mayor and the Moscow government is due to the relatively low urbanization of this sector of the Moscow region, its optimal location to perform functions of the capital Moscow, and also the fact that there has historically placed the objects that contribute to the implementation of the capital's functions.
As planned in the City Hall, in new areas of the city may see up to 105 million square meters of real estate, including 60 million "squares" of housing and 45 million "squares" of the building of social and business purposes.
"This will provide housing for 2 million Muscovites and create over 1 million new highly skilled jobs. In the new territories of Moscow planned to place the federal authorities, the authorities of Moscow an international financial center facilities, research and education, and innovation clusters including an innovation center "Skolkovo" - says in a press release.
At the same time, said chairman of the committee to ensure the implementation of capital investment projects in construction and supervision of participatory construction (Moskomstroyinvest) Konstantin Timofeev, Moscow's approach to the development of the lands transferred from the Moscow region, will be complex.

First aid for sunstroke
The onset of hot weather can "threaten" not only carefree children but also adults solar or heat stroke.




Solar and heat stroke are most susceptible people badly transferring heat, obese, suffering from diseases of the heart and blood vessels, glands, abuse alcohol. Quickly overheat and small children. Simple precautions can help not suffer from the heat. In hot weather experts advise limiting physical and mental stress, resort to water treatment, drink more fluids, especially acidic fruit drinks and green tea.

Development plans for the Moscow metro
The Moscow authorities are planning to build more than 70 kilometers of new subway lines by 2015.




Construction of the first section of the Third interchange circuit (TPK) Moscow Metro will begin, most likely, from the station "Savelovskaya," said Nikolai Shumakov - Metrogiprotrans chief architect in charge of the development projects in Moscow metro stations.
Two of the existing so-called interchange circuit of the Moscow metro - a ring line and stations direct inside. Third interchange circuit has to go around the Circle Line. Earlier, the mayor of Moscow, Sergei Sobyanin urged to accelerate the construction of the subway, and set a target to build 70 km of subway in Moscow in 2015, for these purposes in 2011 allocated 50 billion rubles. The mayor also stated the need to go to the inline construction of underground stations on standard projects, rather than an individual.
According Shumakova, according to the first stage of construction of the circuit, it should appear once the seven stations of deep foundations (at a depth of 50 meters), and the eighth will be the built station "Business Center".

Factors that could ruin a marriage
The Russians have called the factors that can ruin even the close-knit family.




Thus, according to a survey conducted by the All-Russian Public Opinion Research Center, the majority of Russians (52%) admitted that one of the main reasons for the collapse of the family may be cheating, even 45% of respondents said the reason for the divorce - the abuse of alcohol, and 41% - drug use .

Exposure to different types of drugs
To form the drug three times is enough to try drugs. They do not come in mild or severe. Every kind of serious consequences: mental and physiological disorders, general degradation and death.



What the Russians do not have enough to be happy
35,565 Russians responded to the online survey question "What do you now do not have enough to be happy?". Not enough money 44% of Russians. Second and third place was shared by "love" and "confidence in the future", gaining 26% of votes. Absolutely consider themselves happy 9%, can also be considered optimistic and 19% of the respondents that their attitude fortunately formulated as follows: "Something is missing, but the feeling of happiness that does not stop".



How do you know that your home is organized shooting galleries
It is important not only to notice that the house has opium den, but also know how to act to protect themselves and their loved ones. Treatment of citizens help to drug control authorities more effectively fight drug trafficking. Everyone can take part in solving the problem.



Rating the world's cities with the worst situation on the roads
British portal MSN Cars made a rating of cities with the worst situation on the roads.



Rankings towns in traffic jams became champions Sao Paulo. In the largest city in Brazil in 2008 it was registered a record 265 km long traffic jam. In second place the list turned out to Beijing. Last year in the capital of China formed tube length of 100 km. And closes the top three Brussels, which is the second year tops the list of the busiest cities in Europe. Moscow also has appeared in eighth place ranking. The average maximum amount of time in traffic jams Russian capital - the largest in the world - 2, 5:00.

How much is the outlet in Moscow
On June 23, Russia begins the prom. Yesterday, students will rapidly mark the entry into adulthood, and parents podchityvat what caused the damage to the family budget "discharge" festival.



This year's festival "started adult life" will celebrate more than 800 thousand of Russian schoolchildren. In Moscow, it will feature more than 44 thousand graduates of the nearly 1, 3 thousand schools. And the annual reception hosted by the Mayor of Moscow for the medalists will be held June 25 in Gostiny Dvor.

The most polluted city in Russia
Among the most polluted industrial cities of Russia in 2010 was Norilsk, where emissions for the year amounted to nearly 2 million tons.



Rosstat presented a list of 56 Russian cities with the most unfavorable situation.
According to authorities, the industrial cities of the Russian Federation in 2010 produced 100 thousand tons of pollutants more than in 2009: 19, 1 million tons compared to 19 million tonnes respectively.
Despite the fact that Norilsk is far ahead in the number of air emissions, the environmental situation in the city has improved in the past year compared to 2009 (1, 924 million tons of carbon to 1, 958 million tons respectively).
The second highest number of pollutants proved to Cherepovets (333, 3 thousand tons), the third - Novokuznetsk (301, 1 thousand tons), the fourth - Lipetsk (299, 1 thousand tons), and the fifth took Magnitogorsk (231, 9 thousand tons).
Next on the list followed by Angarsk (207, 4 thousand tons of emissions), Omsk (198, 2 thousand tons), Krasnoyarsk (148, 6 thousand tons) and Ufa (134, 1 thousand tons). And closes the first of the "top ten" most polluted industrial cities of the Russian Federation Chelyabinsk (117, 8 thousand tons).
Least of all emissions into the atmosphere last year produced Stavropol (3, 6 thousand tons), Vladimir (4000 tons), Kyzyl (5, 8 thousand tons) and Magadan (5, 9 thousand tons).

Who is eligible for a deferment from the army in Russia
Russian President Dmitry Medvedev has signed amendments to the law "On Military Duty and Military Service", the delay of the spring draft of age school leavers.



Federal Law "On Amending Article 24 of the Federal Law" On Military Duty and Military Service "was adopted by the State Duma on June 17, 2011 and approved by the Federation Council 22 June 2011.
The law will come into force after its official publication.
Spring Call to Russia ends July 15th. Graduation night schools are held in 20 days of June, and enrollment in institutions usually takes place in late July - early August. Thus, students who are 18 years old, may not have time to go to college and just after the school years to get into the army. Amendments adopted in order to avoid such situations.
According to the amendments, citizens passed gosattestatsiyu on educational programs of secondary education and 18 years of age, the delay of the period before October 1 of the year of graduation. Those who can not pass exams, will serve in the army, and will pass the exam again next year.

Secrets of ballet pointe shoes
Pointe - a dance at their fingertips, one of the basic elements of classical ballet female. It also refers to the special shoes for him.



Pointe shoes consist of several main 'parts'. So, the top ballet shoes sewn from satin skin color, which is not under the glare of spotlights rays and calico - the most hygienic tissue. The sole is made of genuine leather. But the tough part of the toe pointe or "box" glued several layers of burlap and textiles. That it creates a focused, allowing ballerina standing at your fingertips.
Interestingly, for the creation of a pointe needed about 100 operations and more than 50 pieces.

Chronology launches "Mace┬╗
The nuclear submarine "Yury Dolgoruky" made in the White Sea launch of an intercontinental ballistic missile "Bulava┬╗.



Start "Bulava" on Tuesday, June 28 in all respects was successful, according to the Russian Defense Ministry spokesman Col. Igor Konashenkov.
"For the first time in the framework of government flight tests of the complex missile launch was carried out from a submerged position with the regular media, which is a nuclear-powered submarine" Yury Dolgoruky ". The submarine commanded by Captain First Rank Vladimir Shirin, "- said Konashenkov.
He added that the "start all parameters held successfully" fighting units delivered "Bulava" in a predetermined area landfill "Kura" (Kamchatka Krai) at the scheduled time.
According Konashenkova, the crew of the submarine when the fire test showed high professionalism and combat training.
This start "Bulava" the fifteenth, formerly of 14 successful launches of missiles were found only seven. Previous test was held on 29 October 2010 and has been successful. Date of the next test missiles were moved several times - to determine the causes of unsuccessful launches.
All starts before June 28, 2011 were made from the submarine "Dmitry Donskoy" (Project (941U, code "Shark"). Start "Bulava" on board the nuclear submarine "Yury Dolgoruky" (project 955 code "Northwind") held for the first time. < br />
Methods survival in the summer heat
Hats, clothing made from natural fabrics, the "right" food and other secrets to the salvation of the exhausting heat of summer - in infographics RIA Novosti.



According to experts, light-colored clothing made of natural fabrics and a hat - the first saviors and protectors from the heat.
Hats and clothing made from natural fabrics, sunglasses and a walk in the shady park assist residents of the capital metropolis to survive the summer heat, the chief physician of Russia Alexander Chuchalin.
According to weather forecasts, temperatures in Moscow this week for the first time since the beginning of the year will exceed plus 30 degrees, which is six to eight degrees above normal.
Chuchalin said that during thermal exposure on the human body gets tired quickly, it decreases performance, it becomes sluggish.
"As for the clothes, you have to look to the southerners. Clothing should cover, and not to open parts of the body. Clothing should be light from a natural fabric, it is very important, because improperly dressed man may be the toxic effect of the sun on the skin and in the body as a whole ", - said Chuchalin.
He added that in the heat of people need to take vitamins A and E, that the admission of alcohol and possibly give up smoking.

The dirtiest things in the house
US scientists have made a rating of the dirtiest things in the house.



The list includes seven items of domestic life, which often accumulate dangerous germs and dirt, writes The Epoch Times. So, the first place in the "dirty" ranking is the kitchen a wooden cutting board on which the number of microbes turned out 200 times more than on the toilet seat. In second place the list of "slut" was home phone handset, and closes the top three sponge for washing dishes.

The new Russian passport
Since July 1, 2011, Russia started issuing new passports.



As the head of the service Konstantin Romodanovsky, the updated document will be different from the previous two lines of machine-readable label at the bottom of the third page on the strip below the photo. This record will contain information about the citizen and the document itself.
The introduction of such innovations should simplify and expand cooperation between Russia and neighboring countries, can also help to simplify the preparation of public services - ticketing, banking transactions and so on. In addition, innovation will help to avoid mistakes when writing the names of the person, passport number and other information contained in the machine-readable labels, as they are read directly from the document.
Decorated before July 1, old-style passports will be valid until the expiration of the use and form of stamp duty and registration renewed passport will not change.

The danger of laser pointers
In June 2011, in Russia, the cases of blindness unidentified pilots coming in to land aircraft with a laser beam.



The use of non-certified laser pointers, "attack" which has recently been subjected to the pilots of aircraft, can cause burns the eyes, the chief ophthalmologist of Health Ministry of Russia, Director of the Moscow Research Institute of Eye Diseases Helmholtz Vladimir Neroev.
Recently in Russia, cases of blinding laser beam aircraft crews calling for a landing. Deputies of the "United Russia" declared intention in the coming days to the State Duma a bill criminalizing the threat of safety of operation of vehicles of hooliganism, which threatens to 10 years in prison. According to the deputy, Vladimir Pligina, since the beginning of the year there were 30 to 50 cases of laser blinding pilots.
Neroev said that there are several types of laser pointers. Those that are sold in stores and have passed the appropriate certification in Rospotrebnadzor and other agencies, are safe for your eyes. Laser pointers can vary in power and wavelength.
"Pointer can sell such that beat far (up to 50 kilometers), and accordingly, they have damaging property. Given their greater power, a person very much can damage the eyes, or currently playing with the pointer, or to another person. You have to be very careful with such pointers, because the burns of the retina, lens and cornea can be very strong, to the point that in the future even if the correct treatment is very difficult to restore vision, "- said the source.

The dangerous swimming in the fountains
Suddenly came the heat puzzled the Muscovites. They often try to escape from the heat in the cool waters of the fountains of the capital, completely unaware of what may face is swimming.



Experts warn that swimming in the fountains can not only lead to injury because of protruding pipes, fixtures, pumps, but also to various infections.

Forms and secrets of golf
Golf - a sports game in which participants or a team competing, trying to hit golf clubs to drive the ball into special wells.


















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