After the introduction of turnstiles cards distributed to beneficiaries and the number of their visits became known to the Department of Transport. Budget began to save on subsidies and revenue transportnnikov increased, as have not been paid almost no one. According to published Mosgortrans, after entering the turnstiles their fees from the tickets increased by 38 percent.
It is concerned with the topic of many fare even greater overall theme of the collection of revenue. As you know, in Moscow the system of e-ticket validation, landing passenger through a turnstile. It is interesting that, historically, the main motive for the introduction of such a system of control was not for the "hares", followed by transport enterprises. The fact that the Moscow Metro and Mosgortrans successfully managed to inflate the number of transported beneficiaries to receive large subsidies from the budget. After Mosgortrans several times managed to get out to the Department with a volume of traffic greater than the subway, it was clear that time would have them do something about it ... and they did.
Naturally, everything did not pay. Firstly, you can get through a turnstile. Second, you can go through it, "paravozik." Third, you can get in the door at disembarkation. And most importantly, in the fourth, you can ride for a long time social travel of his grandmother. The total amount of birds currently estimated Deptransa now amounts to 15%. In November, some of the figures were presented: from the beginning of 2012 inspectors seized 70,000 illegally used social travel revealed 1, 4 million free riders ... and this despite the fact that the controllers are still quite rare, "beasts" in our area.
Many compare the existing system in Moscow with the service of conductor. The conductor has its own characteristics, the most important - the cost of large - on the salary of the conductor takes up to 60% of the ticket price. The great problem is to find a frame for such a thankless job: working tense, nervous, of money, but payment on it just can not be economically significant. As a result, systems of conductor service thrives theft. For example, in Samara conductors steal a variety of ways around 10% of revenues of transport enterprises, and how to say it transports "eat up the industry." In addition the turnstile is still a lot cheaper than the conductor. Annual maintenance costs turnstile $ 900, the conductor (inclusive of all taxes and social payments) will cost the same money per month. The overall increase in costs associated with maintenance of conductor can be about 30% of revenue.
Thus, the Government of Moscow is in a very difficult position. Our citizens are somehow happy lynch pickpocket on the market, but is considered almost a matter of honor, obmaterit Comptroller and pay the fare. Paradoxically, the Controller start trying to write out a fine free-riding, for it begins to stand up the whole bus ... This mentality manifests itself clearly in experiments on how to disable the turnstiles - revenues on these routes immediately greatly reduced. There are totally right questions about how to inform people about these experiments and how experimenters aim was to check the real facts, and how to prove the impossibility of giving up the turnstiles - but nevertheless the fact remains that the fall in revenue.
This turnstiles are quite obvious shortcomings. The first route has declined by one-third the speed of transport. Not many people know that the low-floor vehicles have come up with is not for people with disabilities, as they say in the media. It was designed to speed up boarding and landing passengers. The faster a bus, the less they need to carry a fixed number of passengers. On average, the savings due to the acceleration of the route with the transfer of it to the west nizkopolniki is about 12 percent. In Moscow, in the age of entry turnstiles Bauman depot was planning to open a new tram route: it did not happen, because the accumulated reserve for him the tram had to scatter to the existing network due to the falling rate routing.
This story is particularly amusing in an environment where the authorities in Moscow talk about the need to increase by 40% of the public transport fleet. The fact that the time of boarding and limits the bandwidth stops. If the existing stop to release 40 per cent of transport turnstiles, by simply stops a queue of buses and trams.
The second important thing - it is the refusal of passengers to public transport because of the turnstile system. It's no news that the trip - it is a very important parameter. And there is still time standing in the rain on landing in the interior, there is a crush, there nesrabatyvayuschie tickets, and many other factors due to which the turnstiles scared away passengers of public transport.
We understand that the Department of Transportation proschityval options refusal of turnstiles coated enterprises decreased income from the budget. But in the face of rising transportation costs associated with the new metro stations, new rolling stock, transport interchange nodes, the budget was not prepared to assume an additional and such costs.
As a result, the Moscow city government found itself in a rather complex economic trap: trying to evaluate the effectiveness of different ways of collecting revenue in transportation. The current system is advantageous to use, but gives a large secondary costs due to lower speed and popularity of public transport. Of conductor system will gain in speed and comfort, but at the cost of operation almost as costly as the fare built on honesty passengers. Back in the era of doturniketnuyu allow again to manipulate the number of beneficiaries and greatly bring down budget expenditures on transport system.
When the All Blacks this picture, output is still there. Another issue is that the output is associated with well-defined economic risks, and the need of many legal steps. What does a "city project»?
1. Installation of validators at every door in the rolling stock. Introduction to the privileged categories of citizens of the free responsibility for the lack of validation of the ticket. That is, if Grandma has climbed to the second door, but did not put his travel to the validator, it is necessary to take the penalty, regardless of whether she has or does not have a social card. Naturally, the introduction of this kind of tyranny is necessary to accompany an active educational company.
2. The necessary amendments to the federal legislation, which will allow staff SI "Organizer traffic", to carry out control of documents of citizens, and to provide for transmission of the detention of the police. You've got to explain ... The fact that we have the right to check the documents only the police, fined - employee "of the transport", and check cards - Mosgortrans employee. As a result, the system had to work to gather a team of three departments, which is very expensive and not very effective. Abroad for the job is used the municipal police. We are very afraid of the federal government to create such a "power" structure, preferring to control everything yourself. As a result, reductions in the number of regular employees of the Interior Ministry to monitor and control the passage does not have enough parking. Moscow has broken the right for his GU "The organizer of the parking space" to take away the traffic police functions extract fines for wrong parking. Now we need to take another step in the same direction and achieve for GU "Organizer traffic" sole right to penalize or delivered to the police station stowaways.
3. Once we have clear rules that will not put any card to the validator, but the occupants - stowaway, and there are people who are entitled to prescribe penalties or free riders pursue their administrative detention, you can proceed to the issue of the amount of fines. Here we had to study the experience of Eastern Europe is very close to Moscow in terms of income and social structure of the city population. In Prague, the following principles: a) the inspectors need that much to each stowaway regularly moving by public transport, within a month at least once, was detained supervision b) the amount of the fine must be such to catch a stowaway has paid all the costs for the maintenance control system and all costs of uncaught free riders, thus it is necessary that the size of the fine remained higher than the cost of travel for a month) inspectors should be recruited young men, strong build, team supervisors should be able to check the interior of transportation within about 1 minute, completely d) free-rider is not made penalties in the cabin and did not give further passage, they immediately planted in the street, and then make out with the police, or volunteer. That is, the inspectors do not travel in transport, as the employees often do now SI "Organizer traffic" - they stop any car, the withdrawal of all free riders, and fined them in the amount far exceeds the cost of the travel.
The transition to this system will not interfere with inter alia the deputies. They have like populism and did not differ in mentality from the idiots protecting free riders on buses. They start to tell that free riders - this sotsialnonezaschischennye segments of the population that can not pay heavy fines. The deputies did not explain why these free riders tend to have money for beer, but not on the ticket. They also are not willing to talk about what is the extent of the damage caused to their "ostentatious kindness" to the thieves. You can search in Yandex statements Deputies different cities on raising fares.