Last summer, the Russian authorities of the legendary fortress city in the Gulf of Finland decided on a unique social and economic experiment - the replacement of all janitors migrant compatriots.
No aliens trespassing
Administrative Kotlin Island, on which stands the fortress city of Kronstadt is a common area of St. Petersburg. In reality, the Kronstadt - a different era, a different style of life, and other people. As a rule, the naval technical intelligentsia, officers, whole dynasty marine and military retirees. Our guide, a member of the local public utilities, also from the military - you can not even ask, seen by bearing. Explains to reporters "KP", accustomed to Moscow's struggle for survival on the pavement:
- See, he passes us in advance. He hindrance right. Well, what if he had arrived at the crossroads? He passes, so we decided to go. You know, sometimes that civility even annoying in a hurry ... and if you have to be polite. Everyone knows each other!
Until 1996, the Kronstadt was a closed city. Tourists, of course, allowed and alien visitors turned back home without a goal - naval patrols were on duty at the pier, where boats have resorted. Before construction of the dam at Kronstadt had no land connection to the land, and this fact has imposed a serious mark on the mentality of the indigenous islanders. And Kronstadt has always been famous zero crime rate, yet a trickle of migration flow, filling Peter is not turned into a fortress city.
First conflicts and problems began with the mid-2000s. The town began to develop rapidly immigrants from so-called trading nations. They behaved with the local ... as usual, and the leadership of the city, together with the command of the naval base have decided on the unprecedented step, which does not advertise. As night began to walk Kronstadt military patrols. Powers to detain immigrants have not been, Kronstadt was the "open city", but for some time at the Navy turned to create a regime of "zero tolerance." With endless inspections of documents and "focused attention" to certain categories of citizens.
According to the accounts of citizens, the situation has changed and went out of control in 2008, after the crisis, when Russia for the first time felt the surplus of hands. Visitors workers. The construction market froze and sometimes curled into a ball, laid-off migrant workers start to absorb the utilities. The process has started across the country, and the national composition of the janitors became Central Asian, with rare indigenous people. In Kronstadt, cleaning streets and yards meet the management company "Zhilkomservice", which gave this lesson to outsource some cleaning company "Bond." The firm owned by the St. Petersburg business-builders who began to build out and in Kronstadt excess manpower. Housing problems newcomer workforce businessmen did not care at all. New wipers proposed to deal with the housing yourself. So in Kronstadt the first "rubber flats" and the first squats in abandoned buildings and even on objects owned by the Ministry of Defence. To successfully populated countrymen tightened family, as well as family and kunaks Kunakov. Kronstadt is not alien to the "Soviet friendship of the peoples", at some point just howled, finding themselves in Kronshtadtbade. Especially in a town where everyone knows each other. No wonder the social psychologist, that not knowing, opened one of the reasons why modern migrantophobia. It turns out that the citizens most annoying kaleidoscope of new and unfamiliar faces - the mind is overloaded. And working in an isolated, 43000th village has traditionally been very low, and the weak link, of course, were local. Svetlana, Kronstadt janitor with a 12-year veteran, tells us about those times:
- We felt like to us changed their attitude. Indeed no one spoke, but it was clear that happen - in your place who want to come to ten. We felt some pressure unpleasant. And I can not say that Asians have worked better. Just as we do - there are good caretakers, there are bad ...
It seemed as if the system is successfully operating throughout the country, it is already impossible to roll back, as in the computer, but the July 1, 2013 st century account of the district head Terence Meshcheryakov there was a record, which at first no one paid attention:
"Replaced by two plots FSW Kronstadt janitors. Instead, migrants are now working Russian citizens ».
His administration building of the Kronstadt district is already 130 years old, once again confirming the museum's local life. In Kronstadt there is still no Megamall and entertainment venues, there is disgusting, modern office building. Says Terence Meshcheryakov "of the XIX century, we entered immediately in the XXI century, and the goal of our development - to preserve the past." Peter finally decided what to do with Kronstadt - it will be a city-museum. But combine miraculously preserved European city and bazaar impossible. We understand this, so talk with the head of the wipers slightly archly, without national overtones:
- This year marks 310 years of Kronstadt. Approximately 305 years Kronstadt streets cleaned Russian citizens - says the head. - We have decided not to interrupt this tradition!
However, Terence Meshcheryakov quickly translates the pathos of a double meaning in practical and economic sphere:
- One of the problems of Kronstadt - the lack of jobs. Every morning, thousands of people go to work in St. Petersburg. The second problem - we like to people working in Kronstadt, spending their money here, in our stores, and did not send them to other countries. There was also the economic benefits that we have calculated. We - the state organization. Local operating in the utilities, pay taxes, we have increased payments to the budget. There are also ethical moment - in our city people do not have to live in the basement of 30 people. It is the ethical standards of our lives, and we must respect them! And how can you demand quality work from the janitor cleaning the city, if he lives in such conditions ...? It is very important that people who work in housing, doing it consistently, over many years.
Head talks about staff turnover in housing throughout Russia. A common problem, if the migrant is decorated crooked or forced to share his salary. Cheating no one appreciates even migrant-illegal. I found a better job, surrendered to scrap all the shovels, spades from his area and left for a better life and home in Uzbekistan - who knows? This, incidentally, the real profit Kronstadt. To commemorate the place of the criminal background, which is inevitably created by people with questionable legal and social status:
- I want - says Terence - to janitors at our traditionally could be entrusted with the administrative and law enforcement functions. For example, these would be the correct parking, - to "ER" could pass. To people not just chalk yard, and was responsible for the house in general. For as the old-timers told, he served as a patrol and militiaman. To impose such duties on migrants from Central Asia for various reasons can not be ... I myself indigenous piterets rose from the children of our janitor. We talk a lot about civil society, and the janitor, oddly enough, the most important element in such grassroots cells.
"Local not want to", or arithmetic scoops and shovels
Of course, as soon as the business' dealers slave labor "the smell of fried, Kronstadt administration experienced all the charm of a modern information society. First on urban forums began to appear, that left only registered users: "Kronstadt grows in the mud," "Return my janitor-Uzbek!". Some messages were written with the invention, the only fake complainants did not consider that Kronstadt - a small town, and now the Internet is everywhere, even in some psychiatric hospitals. The web broke real "battle of the witnesses." Some shouted: "Go! Do not lie! What kind of house in which apartment you live? "But" commentators "did not give up:" We are his Russian janitor did not see eye! Launder money! »
At the cries of the Internet media was tightened, and after - the prosecutor's office. Prosecutors traveled to the addresses specified in the numerous complaints, but no violations were not found. The head of this hype responded philosophically:
- You know, we treated it with understanding - business is business - smiling Terence Meshcheryakov. - And the companies that make money, probably, did not like that its services declined. Within the utilities, not all were delighted with our ideas, it did not work for a number of employees. I had to change and head, and middle managers, which work with migrants ... Uh-uh ...
- Interesting! - I find a suitable definition.
- Yeah, interesting - Head nodding - is why we in the management of housing and communal services will be cut further, and money to spend on wages wipers. By the way, the noise in the press had the opposite result. On the experiment we learned everything, and we were able to quickly staffed janitors. A woman from the Pskov region saw on TV the story of Kronstadt - invite wipers provide housing. She came to us.
- You give wipers housing?
- Yes, as always, we give wipers dorm room. The hostel apartment type, and a female janitor came from Kirov with children and took the whole block - a separate apartment. Now we bought street cleaners. If they are janitors will clean three or four plot, we will be happy. Let earn more, who can be against?
Chapter Kronstadt literally kicked us out of his office "in the field". Like, go take a walk through the streets, "see for yourself how we're overgrown in the mud." We walked and talked with wipers - local and visiting Russian citizens. Laid-off foreigners they remembered quite friendly, but we complained about the language barrier. You can not work with people not understanding each other. But the citizens of the CIS, we have not met in the streets. At all! Abandoned Housing Authority Russell, "found understanding among the police and the military." "Rubber flats" dispersed by writing to owners of utility bills by 60 - 80 thousand rubles a month - the number of actually living, making the relevant acts that have signed the neighbors. Said signed with joy, seeing that the initiator of the settlement "crow estates" - the power itself.
In parting, we went to look at a street cleaner. Vacuums really amazing. We all play with him a little bit in some Kronstadt yard. At the same faces janitors were like children in the water park. One of the leaders of the local public utilities even admitted to us that on Saturday worked with this vacuum the whole site. Not according to the order, but got carried away ...:
- Sucks all - cigarette butts, stones. It takes the worst enemy of the janitor - wet leaf. It operates on a single charge eight hours then eight hours network.
- How many sites can be removed from a machine?
- I would have cleaned the three - vlegkuyu!
Hoover, oddly enough, turned out to be domestic production, and in a couple of weeks of work any damage he did not have. I looked at this miracle technique and struggled to understand why a talk of modernization instead of purchase of such equipment, and domestic impure dealers, in fact slaveholders, facing the country in the last century? How come? It is very simple, and very clearly seen in Kronstadt: one is engaged in the guise of information, wailing "Russian does not want to work," while others silently made their slaves. Still others have tried to break this vicious circle.
By the way, Terence Meshcheryakov noticed that dwell on the wipers is not going to. It plans to further reduce the administrative positions in public utilities, improving wages wipers to such a limit, "so far we have formed a queue of applicants." Monitor cleaning are the people themselves, with the help of an interactive map of Kronstadt, exposing their wipers points. And then ... According to the head, he had already talked with representatives of the trade, catering and the owners of minibuses. Talked and "found understanding».
"Gingerbread" for janitors
What put the Kronstadt employee utilities.
1. Living in a dorm-malosemeyku (block type) - 1000 rubles per month plus utilities.
2. Registration in the town of Kronstadt.
3. Work-book, formalization, experience.
4. The average salary of a janitor - from 20 thousand rubles (two sites), Prize.
5. Automation of labor and unrestricted development and salary (you can clean up five sites with a vacuum cleaner - removes).
6. Supported by the authorities and the declared Kronstadt social significance of the profession: "The Janitor - the owner of the yard and the house».
Nikita Krichevsky, an economist, a former student-janitor: "To solve this problem in the housing can be for a month»
- This is a special case, but I think the process will continue. Those who predicted the collapse of the garbage in our cities, will be confounded. Unemployment is high in the Russian regions, there is someone to replace workers. Moreover, ten years ago, we once treated their own. I know the specifics of well - he worked as a janitor. He received 120 rubles plus a scholarship 55 - could afford to fly to visit a friend in the army. The friend was in Georgia, four times drove him. One-room apartment on the outskirts of Moscow, then cost 50 rubles, here and read ... This control of my work has been the most severe, and punished the ruble. And everything was clean. And let the vacancies were not janitors!
Now wipers workers - is not the result of labor shortages and a product of the corrupt system. Solve the problem in housing is very simple - to begin mass planting and penalize workers' housing, and I can assure you that in a month will take on local workers a decent wage.
A street cleaner is as simple car. Illegals janitor nobody will trust.
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Everything can be broken completely