31 January 1944 This day in history

January 31, 1944 adopted a resolution of T-bills of the USSR N 5073 Abolition of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and the deportation of its population to Central Asia and Kazakhstan "for aiding the Nazi occupiers." Chechen-Ingush ASSR was abolished, because of its composition in the Dagestan ASSR passed 4 district, in the North Ossetian ASSR - one area is formed in the rest of the Grozny region. January 29, 1944 People's Commissar of Internal Affairs Beria approved the "Instruction on the procedure for eviction of the Chechens and Ingush," and on January 31 issued a decree of the State Defense Committee of the deportation of the Chechens and Ingush in the Kazakh and Kyrgyz SSR. February 20, together with IA Serov, BZ Kobulov and SS Mamulovym, Beria arrived in Grozny and personally supervised the operation, which under the guise of "exercises in mountainous terrain" was transferred the army of 100 thousand. People including 18 thousand officers and 19 thousand. Operatives NKVD, NKGB and «SMERSH." February 21, he issued an order for the deportation of the NKVD of the Chechen-Ingush population. The next day he met with the leadership of the republic and the supreme spiritual leaders, warned them about the operation and offered to carry out the necessary work among the population.

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Deportation and sending trains to destinations began February 23, 1944 at 02:00 local time and ended on March 9 of that year. The operation began on the codeword "Panther", which was broadcast on the radio. The deportation was accompanied by a few attempts to escape to the mountains or disobedience on the part of local populations. It was also reported "some ugly facts of violations of revolutionary legality, spontaneously created on the remaining executions of the captivity of Chechen women, old women, the sick, the crippled, who could not follow." According to the documents, in a village killed three people, including an eight-year boy, the other - "five women old women", in the third - "for unspecified data" "arbitrarily shot sick and crippled up to 60 people." There are also unconfirmed reports of the burning to death 700 people in the village of Haibach in Galanchozh area. It was sent to 180 trains with a total of 493,269 people resettled. The route was born 56 babies died in 1272 man. In hospitals sent 285 patients. The last train has been sent from passenger cars to former executives and religious leaders of the Chechen-Ingushetia, which were used in the operation.

The fact of the deportation of the Chechens and Ingush known to almost everyone, but perhaps the reason for this relocation few know. The fact is that even in January 1940, the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic acted underground organization Hassan Israilov, putting the purpose of the rejection of the USSR and the creation of the North Caucasus on the territory of the State Federation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus, in addition to the Ossetians. The latter, as, however, and Russian, living in the region, according to Israilov and his associates, the polls should be destroyed. Sam Hassan Israilov was a member of the CPSU (b) and finished in a time of Communist University of the Toilers of the East. His political activities Israilov began in 1937 with the denunciation on the leadership of the Chechen-Ingush Republic. Initially Israilov and eight of his companions themselves were imprisoned for defamation, but soon gave way to the local leadership of the NKVD, Israilov Avtorhanova, Mamakayev and his other of his associates were released, and in their place put those to whom they wrote a denunciation.

However, this has not calmed down Israilov. At that time, when the British were preparing an attack on the Soviet Union, it creates an underground organization with the aim to raise a rebellion against the Soviet government at the time when the British landed in Baku, Derbent, Poti and Sukhum. However, British agents demanded that Israilov start a separate action before the British attack on the Soviet Union. On instructions from London Israilov and his gang were to attack the oilfields of Grozny and disable them in order to create a lack of fuel in the Red Army, fighting in Finland. The operation was scheduled for January 28, 1940. Now the Chechen gangster mythology, this raid was elevated to the rank of a national revolt. In fact, there was only an attempt to set fire to the tank farm, beaten off guard object. Israilov with the remnants of his gang went into hiding - otsizhivayas in the mountain villages, the bandits in order to self-supply from time to time attacked food stores. However, with the outbreak of war Israilov's foreign policy orientation has changed dramatically - now he began to hope for the help of the Germans. Representatives Israilov crossed the front line and was handed to the representative of the German intelligence letter from his supervisor. On the German side Israilov was in charge of military intelligence. The curator also played Colonel Osman Guba. This man, an Avar by nationality, was born in Buynaksk district of Dagestan, Dagestan regiment served in the native Caucasian division. In 1919 he joined the army of General Denikin, in 1921, emigrated from Georgia to Trabzon and then to Istanbul. In 1938 Guba joined the Abwehr, and the outbreak of war he was promised the position of head of the "political police" of the North Caucasus. In Chechnya it was sent to the German paratroopers, among whom was himself Guba, and in the forests of Shali district earned the German radio transmitter communicates with the rebels of the Germans. The first event was an attempt to disrupt insurgent mobilization in the Chechen-Ingush Republic. During the second half of 1941, the number of deserters was 12 thousand 365 people, draft evaders - 1093. During the first mobilization of the Chechens and Ingush in the Red Army in 1941, was planned to be formed from the composition of their cavalry division, but when it failed to encourage the acquisition only 50% (4247 people) of the draft contingent in existence, and 850 people from an already dialed-in to the front immediately went over to the enemy.

Total for the three years of war from the ranks of the Red Army deserted 49,362 Chechens and Ingush, another 13,389 draft evaders, a total of 62751 persons. Killed at the front and the missing (and latter include and gone over to the enemy) only 2,300 people. Half the population of the Buryat people, the German occupation which threatened not lost on the front of 13 thousand people, and in one and a half times lower than the Ingush and Ossetians Chechens lost almost 11 thousand. At the same time, when a decree was issued on resettlement, the army was only 8894 human Chechens, Ingush and the Balkars. That is, it deserted ten times more than the fight. Two years after his first raid - January 28, 1942 Israilov organizes OPKB - "Special Party of the Caucasian Brothers", aiming at "the establishment of the Caucasus, free brotherly Federal Republic of the fraternal peoples of the Caucasus on the mandate of the German Empire." Later, the party he renamed the "National Socialist Party of Caucasian Brothers". In February 1942, when the Nazis occupied Taganrog, an associate of the former chairman of Israilov Lespromsoveta Chechen-Ingush ASSR Mairbek Sheripov was raised a rebellion in the villages Shatoi and Itum-Kale. Aula were soon released, but some rebels fled to the mountains, where carried out guerrilla attacks. So, June 6, 1942 about 17 hours in the Shatoi district a group of armed bandits on the road to the mountain salvo fired trucks with ehavshimi Red Army. Of the 14 who were traveling in a car, three people were killed and two were wounded. The bandits escaped in the mountains. August 17th gang Mairbek Sheripov actually defeated Sharoevskogo district center district.

To prevent the capture of the bandits facilities oil production and refining, the republic had to enter one division of the NKVD, and in the most difficult period of the Battle of the Caucasus to shoot from the front of the military units of the Red Army. However, catch and neutralize the gang for a long time could not - someone warned the bandits escaped ambushes and withdrawn their troops from the blow. Conversely, objects that were attacked, often left unguarded. So, before the attack on the district center most Sharoevskogo area were withdrawn from the district center operations group and military units of the NKVD, which were intended to protect the district center. It subsequently emerged that the bandits patronized Head of the Anti-Gang CHI ASSR Colonel GB Aliyev. And among the things later killed Israilov was found and an internal affair of the People's Commissar of the Chechen-Ingushetia Sultan Albogachiev. It was then that it became clear that all Chechens and Ingush (as Albogachiev was Ingush), regardless of their positions are dreaming, how would harm Russian. and the harm they are very active. However, on November 7, 1942, on the 504 th day of the war, when Hitler's troops in Stalingrad were trying to break through our defenses in the area of ​​deep ravines between the factory "Red October" and "Barricades" in the Chechen-Ingush forces of the NKVD troops with the support of the individual parts 4th Kuban Cavalry Corps conducted a special operation to eliminate armed groups. The battle was killed Mayrbek Sheripov and Guba was caught on the night of January 12, 1943 in the village Akka-Yurt. However, bandit raids continued. They continued with the support of the local population bandits and local authorities. Despite the fact that from 22 June 1941 to 23 February 1944 in the Chechen-Ingushtii killed 3078 members of armed gangs and captured 1715 people, it was clear that while the bandits someone gives food and shelter to win thuggery will not be possible. That is why the January 31, 1944 adopted a resolution of T-bills of the USSR number 5073 on the abolition of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and the deportation of its population to Central Asia and Kazakhstan. February 23, 1944 began the operation "Lentils", during which one of the Chechen-Ingushenii sent 180 levels of 65 cars each with a total of 493,269 people resettled. It was seized 20,072 firearms. When resisting killed 780 Chechens and Ingush, and in 2016 was arrested for possession of weapons and anti-Soviet literature. In the mountains, managed to escape 6544 man. But many of them will soon come down from the mountains and surrendered. Israilov himself was mortally wounded in battle December 15, 1944.


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