In August 1542 the birth of Christ detachment of Spanish conquistador Francisco de Orellana, the South American jungle way through, went to the great river. Being conceited man, de Orellana was thinking unknown to the river's own name. But here on his unit was attacked by Indians, who did not like the presence of strangers on their land. And fought alongside men and women, Spaniards showered a hail of arrows. No stranger to the objectivity, de Orellana remembered the ancient Greek myth of fierce female warriors ... So Amazon has become the Amazon.
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In 2011, Amazon declared one of the seven wonders of the world, created nature. Its length from the source of Ucayali in the Andes to its mouth - over 7000 kilometers. The area of the river basin - 7, 18 million square kilometers; It is slightly smaller than the area of Australia. Every year brings Amazon to the Atlantic Ocean about 7000 cubic kilometers of water and over a billion tonnes of sediment runoff.
In 2010, in one of the tributaries of the Amazon, the Rio Negro, a bridge was built connecting the port of Manaus, the largest on the river, and the city of Iranduba. The length of the bridge - over 3, 5 km. And this bridge - the only one in the Amazon, and, again, through its tributaries. Through the river itself has not yet been able to build a single!
Why is this deepest Amazon? Due to its geographical position and tilt the Earth's axis. Look at the map: Amazon flows almost exactly on the equator. Therefore, from March to September rainy season approaching in the northern hemisphere, it nourishes its left tributaries, and from October to April is the same season is coming to the southern hemisphere, where the right tributaries. Thus, gidrorezhim the greatest rivers of the world - is a mode of constant flooding.
In August 2011, Brazilian scientists all taken aback by his discovery: a pool Amazon flows another river! Underground! Its bed is at a depth of about 4 kilometers, almost exactly copies the ground his older sister, but has a very low flow rate and high salinity. The river is the informal name of Hamza.
Amazon Rainforest covers more than 6 million square kilometers (two-thirds of the US). It is believed that it absorbs a quarter of the carbon dioxide, "processed" in the forests of the Earth oxygen. But for all their immensity is destroyed every second one and a half hectares of the Amazon rainforest. His salvation - one of the world's major problems to be solved in the next 40 years. Otherwise, Amazon will disappear.
Amazon Rainforest - mystery is not solved by scientists until now. In many places it has never gone before. The flora of the Amazon studied only 30%. It hides many secrets and fauna. But what is already known, does not cease to amaze. For example, the freshwater river dolphin pink. When Amazon overflows and floods the forest, he deftly maneuvered between the trunks of trees, hunting for fish.
And this giant Victoria Amazonian leaf diameter of 2 meters can be easily seat a small child - it will not sink. Each sheet can withstand without problems by weight 30 to 50 kg. Only once a year, at night, for 2-3 days, Victoria Amazonica blossoms, spreading their white flowers and hiding them under the water at dawn.
The local people, however, applies to all kinds of miracles is very consumer-Amazonian. And enjoy them on your own. For example, is found in the river is very tasty fish - eel. But to catch it in the usual way is difficult because the electric eel and can lodge in the unfortunate fisherman discharge voltage greater than 500 volts. Therefore, before the locals fishing in the river chase cow herd. Evil acne vent accidents on South American cows its electricity, after which they can be taken literally by hand.
But even the most cunning amazonets experiencing fear of the devil's gardens. So call those places in the Amazon jungle, which grows only one type of trees - this is all around them manifold. The mystery was solved only by American scientists in 2005. It turned out to be the cause of lemon ants, which came with the "devil tree" in symbiosis living in his hollow stems, and that nothing prevented the pet grow - destroying its formic acid sprouts competitors! The largest "garden of the devil" lemon ants grown eight centuries!