The logic of thinking. Part 7. Human-Computer Interface

For those who have just joined, I suggest you start with the first part of or at least a description of the волновой crust model . Our model shows how the wave caused by the activity of neurons in the cortex generates waves background activity propagating within cortical areas, and through the projection communication over the entire space of the brain. Passing on any part of the cortex, the wave encoding certain phenomenon, plays its own unique pattern. This allows the neurons in the cortex anywhere to get information about what is happening in other parts of the brain.

This data transfer mechanism can be compared with the optical telegraph. Even before the invention of the telegraph wire to transmit messages over long distances using a system of towers are in direct line of sight of each other. The position of the rods in a special design, mounted on top of the tower, coded letters transmitted messages. Each of the next tower repeated what she saw on the previous one. Now imagine that each of semaphore towers repeats signal and is working on a clever algorithm. Each signalman gets a special notebook. When he sees for himself a new pattern of strips it writes in a notebook in the first column and puts it under a different randomly selected pattern, which records in front of him in the second column. The main thing - that this pattern is not used in the second column before. Accordingly, the work of the tower turns into a translation of some patterns in others. While respecting the uniqueness of such a conversion. No matter how much the towers in the signal path, the message comes in information integrity, although recoded form.

Now imagine that the towers are not in line, and evenly cover the whole earth. Then, with each tower will be seen several nearby. Table in a notebook signalman have to complicate. He will need to have as many columns as towers plus he sees his own. Under the new conditions will challenge the signalman - put your pattern as soon as at least one of the neighboring towers will be a new message. After all signalers fill their tables, each letter corresponds to the definition of sustainable pattern of flags across the land. It will be enough for one of the towers set a specific signal as it spread around the world.

Change Employment imaginary towers. Put in place a mechanism with flags lantern. Communication between the towers to reduce monitoring outbreaks neighbors and feed their own flash if this is indicated by an entry in the notebook. Keeping a notebook a few complicated. Now a new record it will appear under the following conditions. When near the tower happen series of flashes, the superintendent will check whether there is a record of such a configuration, in his notebook, and if so, will flash its own tower and go to the prescribed instructions rest for a few minutes. If no such entry exists, it will wait until the wave of outbreaks will take and store the resulting pattern. It then considers how many were outbreaks around. If they had enough, that is, the transmitted wave pattern has already been formed in other towers, lighthouses, it will relax and drink tea, waiting for the next wave of outbreaks. Otherwise, it will start to pop a coin, for example, five times (depending on how many other towers he sees) if all five times rolled tails, it will make a new record in a notebook, which will bring a new pattern.

That in such a telegraph to send a message of one word will have to be at the point of origin to match the way some pattern of standing nearby towers. When these towers flash (not once, but a long series), keepers of neighboring towers will toss a coin and will gradually be connected to the spread of the wave pattern. When the whole system of beacons to learn this word, in any place of the earth can be detected its transmission. In every part of the world is the word for the wave propagation of outbreaks will create its own unique pattern. But what is most interesting, we can choose any location and see which pattern corresponds exactly here that interests us the way. If we now reproduce this pattern, forcing erupt appropriate beacons, the wave of outbreaks reaching the destination will create exactly the same pattern as if the message was sent from the source point. Actually, that's how the brain works, and (in our theory). The concepts are encoded patterns of neurons that generate pulse packages. Single pulse wave spread patterns identifiers throughout the brain. And this mechanism is the basis for all subsequent information activities.

Let's go back to the cortex. Judge what gives rise to the brain thought, a variety of ways. The easiest way - an analysis of EEG readings multipoint. Since different thoughts cause distinct pattern of activity areas of the cortex, certain patterns can be tracked and subsequently used. Understand the thoughts in this way is impossible, but can be roughly distinguished from each other different forms of brain activity. If desired, it can be used for simple control systems that do not require high precision and speed.

More advanced techniques - this fixation, for example, using magnetic resonance imaging, the level of oxygen saturation of blood flow to the area of ​​the cortex, which gives an indication of the places where the largest concentration neural activity. The spatial resolution in this case many times higher than when using encephalograph. For the primary visual cortex, where preserved topografichnost projection, this method even very rude and inertia, but lets look into the thoughts of a man (see Figure below).

The results of image reconstruction (Shinji Nishimoto, An T. Vu, Thomas Naselaris, Yuval Benjamini, Bin Yu, Jack L. Gallant, 2011) i>

Magnetic Resonance Imaging is cumbersome and unsuitable for use nonlaboratory. But there is an easier way to measure cerebral blood flow parameters - it is a local infrared spectroscopy. Separate sensor consists of a source of infrared radiation and an optical receiver of the reflected signal. From the change of the absorption spectrum can be judged on the processes occurring directly under the sensor. Using a combination of infrared and EEG sensors, Honda has created an interface that allows to precisely control a humanoid robot (Honda Research Institute Japan Co., 2009).

The complex Honda (Honda Research Institute Japan Co., 2009) i>

Even more detail cortical activity in space and time allow to obtain the previously mentioned optical methods, but they give an idea of ​​just about collective activity of thousands of adjacent neurons.

Averaging neuronal activity over any area of ​​the cortex loses information about the identity of the wave pattern. For this activity, you can build a crude assumptions about what happens to the brain, but can not get access to the subtle information processes. Something similar can be observed with computers. On the activity of individual modules and computer analysis of the emitted frequencies can be judged on what type of tasks it performs. For some programs, you can even get the hand to guess the individual actions, but this is not the comparison by the possibilities it provides a connection to data lines.

Get to the immediate activity of many neurons at once now allow implantation of electrode arrays methods. In 2004-2005, the first experiment has been done by the implantation of the sensor completely paralyzed patients. As a result, succeeded in more or less adequate management of hand-prosthesis (Leigh R. Hochberg, Mijail D. Serruya, Gerhard M. Friehs, Jon A. Mukand, Maryam Saleh, Abraham H. Caplan, Almut Branner, David Chen, Richard D. Penn, John P. Donoghue, 2006) em> (figure below).

a) The array of electrodes on the pennies and inserted into the skull socket. Em> b) An array of one hundred electrodes. c) location of the array. d) The first patient with established interface (Leigh R. Hochberg, Mijail D. Serruya, Gerhard M. Friehs, Jon A. Mukand, Maryam Saleh, Abraham H. Caplan, Almut Branner, David Chen, Richard D. Penn, John P. Donoghue, 2006) em>

An array of electrodes used in the experiments, not extremely accurate connection to the cortex. Only a portion of the electrodes recorded the impulses of individual neurons, the rest passed the total activity of neuronal groups. But even in this experiment enough to filter out quite useful information.

When the progress of technology will remove a small area of ​​the brain activity of at least several hundred neurons, as I see it, this will be enough to create an artificial wave tunnel similar to the tunnels that connect between different areas of the cortex. Analysis of wave activity patterns will not only keep track of the state of neurons detectors small part of the cortex, it allows you to see the information passing through it and the waves, respectively, to form an idea of ​​all the concepts, works with this area of ​​the cortex. It seems to me that a dozen such tunnels allocated from different areas of the brain, the transmission of a computer almost complete picture of human thought. It will not be a photographic picture of what we see, or the sound of what we hear, but it will be a full reproduction of what we think.

If our concept is correct, then the wave and tunnels can read information, and broadcast it back. To transfer information from your computer to the person, you can either play patterns previously considered identifiers or generate unique property. In the latter case it will be necessary to train the brain to compare the computer-generated waves with the concepts that are already known to man.

If you take two people and connect them to your computer, and then carried out with the help of re-encoding patterns, shifting patterns that are typical for one, in the patterns corresponding to the same concepts in the other, you get a telepathic interface, the same crown Kazarina professor of McGee.

The wave interface are not limited telepathic communication and human computer or between people. If the computer play the cerebral cortex, it is possible to ensure that in the process of co-existence, it has absorbed a significant amount of memory and personality rights. Perhaps if full transfer of the person will take years of living together with the connected computer, but potentially it opens up the possibility of "transmigration of the soul." If you dream on, nothing prevents trained to connect the computer to a purely biological brain and spend a gradual reverse shift. Of course, it is interesting to speculate about what will happen to the self-consciousness in such travel, but it's a topic for another conversation.



Previous parts:
Part 1. Neuron
Part 2. Factors
Part 3: Perceptron, convolutional network
Part 4. Background activity
Part 5. The brain waves
Part 6. System projections

Alex Redozubov (2014)



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