15 animals, which have played an important role in the history of mankind (26 photos)

Human history is written not only brilliant scientists, politicians and military leaders. "Our younger brothers" sometimes take it for at least an active part, and who knows what would it ended, not whether, for example, Alexander's Bucephalus, and Richard Nixon - dog, Checkers.




1. Lin Wang



"Grandpa Lin," as it is called - perhaps the most famous elephant in the history of mankind. During the Sino-Japanese War, which then became part of the Second World Lin Wang a while "fighting" on the side of the Japanese invaders, invaded Burma: elephant carrying cargo and dragged artillery. In 1943 he, along with 12 other elephants had been captured by the Chinese Expeditionary Force, and continued his service there as well as draft power and "cargo" of the animal. There he was awarded the name of A-Mei (in the lane. With the whale. - "Beautiful»).

After the war, Wang, together with the body arrived in China, where he remained until his death. In 1952, the year "veteran" to retire, and he became one of the main attractions of the Taipei City Zoo. The director of the zoo found it, that the name of A-Mei too feminine and renamed it Lin Wang. Elephant for years has become a real favorite of residents and their children, and after his death in 2003, the year he was even awarded the title of honorary citizen of the city.

By the way, according to the "Guinness Book of Records" Lin Wang, who died at the age of 86 years, he was the oldest ever living elephants.

2. Bucephalus



Without his trusty steed Bucephalus, Alexander the Great probably would not have received the honorary nickname of "Great": the famous horse in his life played a significant role. Life Bucephalus covered with legends and speculation, but historians agree that this horse is really existed.




Philip II

According to legend, the first meeting of Alexander and "Bychegogolovogo" (lat. Bucephalius) occurred when the future of the famous commander was 10 years old. His father, King Philip, offered to buy Bucephalus 13 talents (about 340 kg of silver - fabulous money in those days). But since no one could tame the animal's violent temper, the king thought to abandon the deal.

Alexander intervened in the case and said that if he could not rein in his horse, he'll pay for it myself. Little Dodger noticed that Bucephalus afraid of its own shadow and bucking, resets all the riders. Jumping into the saddle, Alexander led the horse to turn his head to the sun so that he could not see the shadows - only an animal, finally managed to calm.

There are different assumptions about the death of the legendary horse: some historians write that he died in battle, while others believe that the cause of death was old age. Whatever it was, Alexander was very fond of his horse, and in his honor even Bucephalus founded the city, located in present-day Pakistan - in our time it is called Jalalpur Jattan.

3. Surus




Scientists believe that Surus (surus in the lane. With Phoenician - "Syrian") - the only bishop who survived the famous Carthaginian commander Hannibal's march across the Alps.

According to some information, "Syrian" I was the favorite war elephants commander: Hannibal went on it more often. According to eyewitnesses, the famous general, almost all the elephants in his army were of African origin, but many report that at least one was from India - more likely, we are talking about Suruse.

Perhaps it is the roots of the Asian elephant allowed to go through all the hardships of the Alpine campaign of Hannibal, the chief of which were hunger, cold, disease and violent battles with the hill tribes.

4. DJ



Outstanding ethologist (specialist in animal behavior) Dian Fossey throughout his career has worked with a large number of gorillas, but her favorite was always the male by the name of DJ. Between Diane and gorilla came true affection: they spent much time together, and none of the people did not trust the DJ as she.

In 1977, DJ was killed by poachers, and his hands and head, intended for the manufacture of exotic ashtrays killer sold for only $ 20. In memory of the deceased buddy Fossey established a "Fund Didzhita", whose task was to rescue the mountain gorillas.



Dian Fossey

After the death of Diane Didzhita lived only eight years: in 1985, she was hacked unknown attackers outside his bungalow near its research center based Karisok. Most likely, the killer hired by a commercial organization to exterminate the gorillas for profit. Since then, the Fund for Saving the gorillas was renamed the "Fund Dian Fossey" - in honor of the woman who devoted her life to the study and conservation of primates, so similar to human.

5. Balto



Siberian husky Balto at the time was probably the most famous dog in the United States - an outstanding durability and flair made him a true national hero.

In 1925 in the village of Nome, Alaska outbreak of diphtheria. Delivery of drug serum aircraft was not possible because of the storm began, and the only vehicles that can overcome the 1085 km in a near-zero visibility and piercing icy wind, appeared driving dog sleds.

At last, the easiest section of the route length of about 83 km away was carrying vital cargo team led by Balto. Dogs almost died crossing the river, turned the sled, almost lost a box of ampoules, and more than once risked going astray, but thanks to the intuition and imagination of the Baltic drug was delivered safely.



The epidemic was stopped for five days, and Balto and the other dogs sleds suddenly became famous. Within a year, both in the Central Park of New York erected a monument to the Baltic, is inscribed on it, which could well be the motto of the animal, "Endurance, fidelity, intelligence».

6. Chequers



Dog Chequers Richard Nixon obliged to take off his political career - perhaps precisely because of it, Nixon became the 37th President of the United States.



Dwight Eisenhower

In 1952, when Nixon was running for vice-president, he was accused of the fact that the election campaign was spent illegally donated funds. The seriousness of the accusations made almost the then US President Dwight D. Eisenhower to abandon such a partner, but Nixon saved the day, appeared on television to appeal, which went down in history as the "Speech of Chequers».

It Nixon denied all the accusations, saying that the only gift he admits - Puppy cocker Chequers. I must say, Richard really felt for him affection, and that helped him to create the image of "man of the people" and animal lovers. Public opinion is tipped in favor of Nixon, and he got the long-awaited post that allowed him a few years to continue to climb the political ladder to become president. Unfortunately, Checkers did not wait for the main host of triumph: he had died four years before Nixon's inauguration.

7. Keiko



Probably in the world there exists a few animals that have become movie stars, and like the male killer whale Keiko, and was not at all or not. Keiko has played a major role in the movie "Free Willy" and its sequels. An epic tells the story of friendship boy and killer whales, so loved by the audience, that they were transferred huge sums on the maintenance and treatment of Keiko (during filming, he suffered from severe skin disease).

After the release of pictures on the screens Keiko is called, he became famous: it turned out that his fate worried thousands of people who even organized a special fund to raise funds for the needs of hard to be ill "actor." In rolling out two more films with his participation, and then put Keiko to the aquarium in Newport (Oregon). After a couple years of intensive medical procedures orca went home to Iceland, where it was prepared to release to freedom.

Some doubted the wisdom of such a move, believing that the animal is not able to re-adapt to the wild, and, unfortunately, the skeptics were right. In 2002, Keiko was released into the wild, and swim about 1,400 km, he settled Taknes fjord on the west coast of Norway, but in 2003, the famous "actor" died of pneumonia.

8. Elsa



Elsa was the first in the history of a lioness, who grew up in captivity and was able to successfully adapt to life outside prison. She brought the couple George and Joy Adamson, who worked at the Kenya National Park Meru.

In 1956, George had to shoot an enraged lioness, going at it to lash out, and her three charming cubs were left without a mother. One of the orphaned cubs was Elsa.

The couple nursed and lioness went, and when she grew up, began to gradually accustomed to freedom, away from Taking the camps and pitting on the injured animals to wake up in her hunter instinct. Gradually Elsa accustomed to independence, but from time to time returned to Adamson.



One lioness has withdrawn for a young male, and her "foster parents" relieved and the share of sadness: they realized that the predator was finally able to establish contact with relatives and now forget the way home, but after a while Elsa again came to them with Three newborns cubs.

Joy Adamson Elsa dedicated the book "born free", according to which in 1966 was filmed the movie of the same name.

9. David gray-bearded



David went down in history as the chimpanzee from which the famous British ethologist and primatologist Jane Goodall began her more than 45-year follow-up monkeys in the National Park Gombe Stream in Tanzania.

Jane actually lived side by side with the gray-bearded, studying its behavior. Thanks to David (and of course, Jane), the world learned that the people - not the only one who can create tools, and seeing it for hunting and fishing, Goodall concluded that chimpanzees eat not only fruits and leaves, as previously thought. < br />


Perhaps the most important merit of the gray-bearded that other chimps, looking at communication scientist and his kinsman, have ceased to shun Jane and allowed her to establish a close contact. Based on his observations, Goodall established the detailed description of the life of chimpanzees, and her writings are still unsurpassed classic studying monkeys. We can say that David, who became the first object of the observations of the great scientist, science has done for more than a few researchers.

10. Lonesome George



The only known representative of abingdonskih elephant turtles (subspecies of Galapagos tortoises) is often called the world's most famous bachelor. Scientists have tried for years to get him offspring, but even after mating George genetically close mates, the miracle did not happen revival of the form - the embryos in the eggs laid by the females were not viable.



Great, one and a half meters in length and weighing about 80 kg male discovered in 1972, on the island of Abingdon (also known as a pint) Hungarian Jozsef Vagvёldi scientist. Not a single animal like George on the island could not be found, so after his death June 24 2012, the year abingdonskie turtles are considered to be extinct. The most famous bachelor, according to some estimates, there were about a hundred years.

11. Dolly



This sheep was destined to change history: having been born July 5, 1996, the year as a result of the experiment Ian Wilmut and Keith Campbell, Dolly was the world's first successfully cloned mammal.

The birth of Dolly put an end to disputes about whether it is possible, in principle, the cloning of complex living beings, and the technology used in its conception, later widely used in cloning mice, dogs, cats and even horses. Thus, Dolly gave a powerful impetus to the development of medicine and biology, defining their development for years to come.



Kate Campbell

Sheep lived 6, 5 years, and all this time it attracted the attention of the world community: the headlines of that time her name is found almost more often than the names of the stars of music and cinema. In 2003, Dolly was euthanized and stuffed it exhibited at the Royal Museum of Scotland. By the way, Dolly became also the first ever cloned mother - she gave birth to six lambs.

12. Punxsutawney Phil



I'm sure many of you have heard about Groundhog Day (February 2): it is considered that the behavior of marmots in the day, you can predict the proximity of spring. When marmots safely leave their burrows, it is said that winter on its last legs, and if the animal looked fearfully around, hiding back - sooner than six weeks, the heat not wait.



The most famous groundhog forecaster, of all time - Phil, who lives in the city of Punxsutawney (Pennsylvania). Residents of the town say that only Phil could anticipate the weather, and all others are wrong marmots. According to legend, marmots give special elixir of longevity, so in 2013, the year he turned 172 years (despite the fact that the usual life expectancy of marmots - up to ten years).

Of course, the "longevity" Phil - no more than a tourist attraction, but faithful to its traditions residents Punxsutawney commands respect. However, once "longevity" almost sentenced to the death penalty: lawyer from Ohio groundhog accused that he "promised" the Americans early spring, but after Phil out of the hole the temperature dropped to -30 ° C. US climate scientists have calculated that the famous groundhog predictions are correct at 39%, but many fans of Phil called other figures - from 75% to 90%.

13. Whip



From the little polar bear cub, was born December 5, 2006, the year the Berlin zoo mother abandoned immediately after birth, but this family tragedy proved a boon for the zoo. The news of the "abandoned baby Knut" quickly spread throughout Germany, and in Berlin the Germans pulled compassionate crowd, eager to see for "orphan" and take part in his life. In honor of the bear was even called children: more than half of the boys who were born in March 2007 in Berlin, are named Knut.

Zoo staff raised Knut, and for several years it has become their "gold mine": the famous polar bear written books, made films, but in Berlin are still sold toys and souvenirs depicting bears, although he died in 2011 year. After the death of Knut in the Zoo erected a monument, which immediately became a place of pilgrimage for many fans of the animal.

14. Laika



Names of Belka and Strelka known literally worldwide. Returning from orbit, they are forever entered the history of space exploration, but do not forget that their flight was preceded by several other start-ups that were not so successful, but allowed the scientists to "work on the bugs" and thus ensured the success of the expedition of the famous couple.

Flight Laiki November 3 1957, almost three years before the start of Belka and Strelka. The program of the experiment did not provide for the return Laika to Earth, so scientists knew that the dog was doomed, and apart from the thirst of space exploration, which they experienced in preparing the dog to be sent into space, the researchers probably felt something akin to compassion.

The design of the module has been designed for a week's stay in orbit Laika, but as a result of miscalculations admitted she died, having made four turns around the Earth. The Soviet Union has long gloss over the details of the incident, and even scientists around the world reported on the observation of the physiological parameters of the dog, although Laika had already been dead.

15. Bubbles



Bubbles (Bubbles, in the lane. From English. - "Bubbles") - is the chimpanzee, was born in a medical laboratory, and for a time served as a scientist to test animals, but thanks to a fluke of him learned Michael Jackson, who bought the animal, and a few years, they almost did not leave.

Primacy knows firsthand about life with the King of Pop, he took an active part in the concerts Jackson, accompanied him at a party, where he met with the bohemians of the 1980s, and was, according to Michael, one of his few real friends. The singer even intended to transplant chimpanzee human ligament, so he could speak, but he was dissuaded from undertaking scientists believe that Bubbles will not survive the operation. This unusual friendship is immortalized in 1988 by sculptor Jeff Koons (Jeff Koons), created the gilded statue, which depicts the King of Pop and his monkey in full size.



When Bubbles grew and became too aggressive, Michael sent him to the Center for the apes in Florida, but regularly called primate so that he could hear his voice.

Tags

See also

New and interesting