Extraction of the sulfur in the Indonesian volcano

The region is Indonesia's East Java volcano Kawah Ijen, 2, 6 km in height, topped by a large caldera (depression on top) and a lake of sulfuric acid a depth of 200 meters. This low activity inside the volcano crater emits gas evaporation, which the local miners used to earn a living. Evaporation retained on stone and ceramic tubes, which, as a result of condensed sulfur in a molten red liquid, then it flows down and is solidified in the form of pure sulfur. Miners knock frozen pieces with steel fittings. Thus they use a minimum of protection, despite the fact that during the stand extremely hazardous gases and liquids. Then the miners embark on the sulfur and carry it several kilometers to the weighing station. The load can weigh 45 to 90 kg, and one miner per day can not do more than two or three walker. At the end of a long day, the miners receive 50 thousand rupees ($ 5). Sulfur is then used for vulcanization of rubber, sugar decolorization and other industrial processes.







Indonesian miner carries sulfur from the volcano Ijen May 24, 2009 in the suburbs of Banyuwangi, East Java, Indonesia. (Ulet Ifansasti / Getty Images)



Filled with acid lake inside the crater Ijen volcano 200 meters deep and a kilometer wide. Picture taken May 24, 2009 in East Java, Indonesia. The lake is filled with a solution of sulfuric acid and hydrogen chloride at a temperature of 33 Sº. (Ulet Ifansasti / Getty Images)



A worker repairs the pipe, in which the sulfur gases are condensed. Ijen volcano complex May 24, 2009 in the suburbs of Banyuwangi, East Java, Indonesia. (Ulet Ifansasti / Getty Images)



Miner removes sulfur from the chimney at the crater of the volcano Ijen May 24, 2009 in East Java, Indonesia. The molten sulfur flows from pipes deep red color, and as it cools it becomes yellow and slowly solidified. (Ulet Ifansasti / Getty Images)


Workers repairing pipes, which are condensed sulfur gases. Ijen volcano complex May 24, 2009 in the suburbs of Banyuwangi, East Java, Indonesia. (Ulet Ifansasti / Getty Images)


In this photo taken through a segment of replacement ceramic pipes, workers renovating a large pipe for condensation of sulfur. Ijen volcano complex May 24, 2009 in the suburbs of Banyuwangi, East Java, Indonesia. (Ulet Ifansasti / Getty Images)


Workers repairing pipes, which are condensed sulfur gases. 24 May 2009. (Ulet Ifansasti / Getty Images)


A piece of sulfur extracted from the volcano Ijen. Picture taken May 24, 2009, East Java, Indonesia. (Ulet Ifansasti / Getty Images)


Miner removes sulfur from the chimney at the Ijen volcano crater May 24, 2009 in East Java, Indonesia. (Ulet Ifansasti / Getty Images)


Miner brings sulfur to your Cart Ijen crater 24 May 2009. (Ulet Ifansasti / Getty Images)


Shakhtar Donetsk makes a short break while working at the Ijen volcano on May 24 2009. (Ulet Ifansasti / Getty Images)


The loaded sulfur baskets, ready to ensure that they were carried up the steep walls of the crater and then to the weighing station. 24 May 2009. (Ulet Ifansasti / Getty Images)


The miners endure sulfur from the crater of the volcano Kawah Ijen 25 May 2009. (Ulet Ifansasti / Getty Images)


Shakhtar is close to the top of the crater wall on the well-trodden path leading to the volcano Kawah Ijen May 25, 2009 in East Java, Indonesia. (Ulet Ifansasti / Getty Images)


The photo shows how a heavy burden - the weight it can reach up to 70kg - it is noticeable on the skin and muscles compressed miner who carries the sulfur on the weighing station 25 May 2009. (Ulet Ifansasti / Getty Images)


Shakhtar during a break from the volcano Ijen May 25, 2009 in East Java, Indonesia. (Ulet Ifansasti / Getty Images)


Shakhtar shows sores and scars from carrying sulfur from the volcano Ijen, May 24, 2009 in East Java, Indonesia. (Ulet Ifansasti / Getty Images)


Miner comes to the weighing station and its cargo of sulfur hangs on the balance. May 25, 2009 in East Java, Indonesia. (Ulet Ifansasti / Getty Images)


Shakhtar resting in base camp called "Camp Sulfutara». May 24, 2009 in Indonesia. (Ulet Ifansasti / Getty Images)


Shakhtar inside the camp Sulfutara 24 May 2009. (Ulet Ifansasti / Getty Images)


Shakhtar during the break on the way to the volcano Ijen May 25, 2009 in East Java, Indonesia. (Ulet Ifansasti / Getty Images)

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