Have You ever seen anything like breathing the ocean? It breathes, and not to worry? If not, then the following article is for You.
Until recently it was believed that the ocean floor is flat except for the depressions, vegetation, reefs, wrecks and other discarded into the sea by human subjects.
In the 70-ies of XX century with the development of science and technology began a detailed study of the seabed and ocean floor. It was then discovered "black smokers".
Named these formations on the ocean floor "black smokers" because I really like the exhalations of merchants, but the smoke is not white, but black.
Science these formations called hydrothermal vents mid-ocean ridges and explains this quite difficult. But, simply put, is something between underwater volcanoes and geysers, but instead of hot lava and water (in each case) from sources pulled out a black, full of ash, sulfur, iron and other chemical elements in water. A feature of these geysers is that they look high enough "pipes", or as they are called, mini volcanoes. Their height reaches more than 100 meters, and they consist of particles of ash, which for a long time settled around the source. Now they are high enough and have the shape of a cone, from the vertex which breaks the flow.
Flow temperature sometimes more than 325°C, which indicates that it is not even water, and dirty pairs. But where on the ocean bottom sources of dirty pair? Ash, these "pyramids" are always placed at mid-ocean ridges, where through cracks in the bark fills the salty water, and hot magma looking for a way to the surface, takes in her reaction. It is because of the process of "hot magma + cold water" is steam, and from the point of view of chemistry, this process triggers a variety of reactions, which becomes a dark gray color spewing "smoke" and its saturation with metals and other elements.
Most interesting is that in Oceania, there are "white" smokers. This phenomenon is similar to "black smokers", but differs in color, chemical composition and temperature (it is much lower, from 100°C to 250°C).
Interesting fact: around the black smokers was teeming with life. The average water temperature at the bottom of the oceans in places where the smokers around +5°C, and the escaping steam much hotter. By ordinary heat transfer form the so-called "buffer zone" where the temperature is warm enough. It is here and is inhabited by various organisms – from bacteria to shrimp.