Faster, higher, stronger, invisible, fluffy — like evolution changes animals? We have collected the most unusual examples of adaptation.
Which tricks do not go fauna to keep the offspring! Cuckoos throw the eggs in the wrong nest, and coqueta throw out competitors from the nest. It is known to all, but not many people know about the concern of the Surinamese Pipa.
Unlike most amphibians, this toad from South America doesn't spawn anywhere: after done mating dance underwater and the male and female simultaneously released into the water sperm and eggs, mother-toad dives and catches children's future on its sticky back, and Papa is toad helps to put them in special cells on the back "wife" with the hind legs. And then 11-12 weeks of Pipa-the mother is a brood of 40, or even 140 eggs on her back until her tadpoles hatch.
This rare kind of adaptation contributes to the prosperity of Suriname Pipa in the waters of the Amazon. Amazing care toad Pipa has dedicated the poem, the poet and the biologist Boris Zakhoder.
Stir the hair
Eighty million seventy two thousand one hundred thirty four
The most ancient representatives of ungulates in North America, the last of the family volarovich, which once numbered 70 species, the pronghorn is unique. And they — the silver Champions run for animals: accelerated to 67 km/h, second in speed only to the Cheetah.
But most importantly — the pronghorn is extremely developed muscles, and among them there are special, allowing you to change the angle of the hairs relative to the skin. If it's cold — pronghorn lay the wool horizontally if hot and need to cool down, sheresheva hair. This adaptive system helps the pronghorn in moments of danger: seeing the threat, one of the animals standing on the lookout, usherusher hair his white "mirrors" — spots around the tail.
Noticing the signal of the guard, other members of the herd also make furry your butt, alerting the others. This sign of alarm can be seen by the naked eye for more than 4 km.
Fish with antifreeze
Ninety one million four hundred eighty six thousand five hundred fourteen
More than half a century, scientists are trying to unravel the secret of non-freezing fish Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni), which lives near the South pole. The blood of most fish is frozen at a temperature of -0,9 °C, and this Antarctic endemic species manages to survive at temperatures of about -1,8 °C and below.
It turned out that during the evolution of toothfish learned to develop a special "protein-antifreeze" that prevents blood freeze. Exactly how it works, scientists have learned more recently, a study was commissioned by automaker Volkswagen. Using teragertsovogo spectroscopy, researchers from Ruhr University saw that water molecules, which are usually performed "disco dance" in the blood of toothfish, forming and breaking chemical bonds, slowing down the appearance of already known "protein-antifreeze", and this, in turn, prevents the formation of ice crystals in the blood of fish. The automaker hopes to use this discovery to create effective nezamerzayki.
Freeze or die!
Seventy six million twenty six thousand six hundred ninety one
Not all animals are in danger flee. There is a special cunning: they have learned to pretend to be dead so predators took them for carrion. So, wounded or badly frightened possum is able to expertly mimic death. It is not just falls and lies motionless — his eyes glaze over, mouth foam, and anal glands to emit a secret with a disgusting smell.
Sniffing the body of the alleged dead man, predators usually go. They say that the possum is so get used to the way that is real, even if it is touched by foot, or to move to another place. Only after some time he'll come around and run. The same talent "to die" has svinonosogo nosed snake of the colubrid family: if threatened, she turns belly up and freezes.
Eight million three hundred forty one thousand three hundred ninety five
Disguise, succeeded in what many representatives of fauna. Some of the most talented make — believers is latowicki insects, or stick insects: in the course of evolution they have learned to merge with nature and long to sit still. Because of this, they are completely invisible on the background of leaves and branches. For their amazing camouflage stick insects got another name: prividenie. The largest insect on Earth was only classified in 2008: this megaphonic Chan, reaching a length of 35.7 cm with elongated limbs. To detect this "Ghost" in Malaysia, in Sabah.
Fifty two million two hundred nine thousand one hundred forty four
Living in the dry savannas of Africa and food bushes made antelope gerenuk to grow a long neck and legs, which she called "giraffidae Gazelle", although irrelevant to the giraffes.
The whole structure of this graceful animal says about how his power: hard and insensitive language pursed lips allow clenching of the prickly branches, elongated limbs, slim, slender neck and a movable hip joint having a swivel, give the opportunity to stand on their hind legs to reach the branches at high altitude. Feet giraffidae Gazelle is so thin that it can easily break in an accident.
Tusks instead of horns
Fourteen million six hundred two thousand nine hundred fifty four
Tufted deer living in the South of China, have figured out how to compensate the small horns that are completely visible due to the Pappus. The Arsenal of weapons used in the battle with the male competitors, they added long fangs — these shoots length is 2.5 cm sticking out of his mouth, which animals received the nickname "saber-tooth". Chinese crested deer, there are other interesting features: alarmed animals produce barking sounds, and sensing a real threat, notify other relatives, highly with his white tail.
Thirty two million nine hundred ninety three thousand two hundred fifty seven
Asian ants of the species Polyrhachis bihamata to deter predators grew sharp hooks on the head is for the beast to touch the insect as he pierces his skin. The ants live in logs of trees together, and if trouble threatens the colony, the hooks interlock with each other, forming a single mass, which is one of its kind, which scares away the animals. Usually predators avoid to pick up at the same time a thousand ants armed with hooks, and grab them one by one they fail.
Survival without water
Fifty one million two hundred twenty five thousand four hundred ninety eight
Hibernating bears, turtles and hedgehogs is not surprising: falling into a dream, the animals wait out unfavorable seasons. However, there is on earth only one sleeping fish which can live without water for up to four years. In the drying of water bodies in Africa protaper digs a nest in the mud of the pond to a depth of half a meter, and does it with his mouth, throwing the ground through the gills. In his "bedroom" remain cracked for air, because procopter — dipnoan fish, in other words, she's got lungs. She wakes up when it's the rainy season. published