New amazing surprises VselennoyVselennaya just loves to put us into a dead end. Often, the opening of which bring great benefit to science, and are also the most mysterious. And specialists have long discussions, trying to somehow explain the new mysteries of the universe.
1. The mysterious magnetic field Luny
For millennia, the moon does not have its own magnetic field. However, a recent study showed that it was not always. About 4 billion years ago, molten core of the moon suddenly began to rotate in the direction opposite to the direction of rotation of the mantle surrounding this core.
As a result, satellite emerged own magnetic field, which has covered the moon invisible shield. It can be assumed that arose magnetic field was much weaker than the earth, because of the low mass of the Moon.
But to the astonishment of experts, our little moon was able to generate a magnetic field which is stronger than on Earth. Currently, no one really understands how such a nondescript celestial body failed to demonstrate such an impressive magnetic activity. And the explanation here range from honest "we do not know" to "probably is magic».
In general, the riddle says that one of the best-studied celestial bodies in the solar system has a set of unknown characteristics. It looks like the moon has used some incredibly exotic technique to create an incredibly strong magnetic field. And keep this field for quite some time, possibly due to the constant bombardment, which has fueled the lunar magnetism.
2. Galaxy, whose age - 13 billion let
The young universe was a living hell. She looked like a good scrambled and completely opaque mix of electrons and protons. It took half a billion years, and only if it is "child" has cooled so much that it was able to form neutrons. And only after that there was a picture in which there are galaxies and stars.
A recent in-depth study of the cosmos, made with a telescope "Subaru", which is located in Hawaii, failed to identify seven of the earliest galaxies in the universe.
Are they at a distance of 13 billion light years away, so that when viewed through a telescope they look like the subtle reflections of light. In fact, they became visible only after the "Subaru" focused on a small sector of the sky and watched it for 100 hours.
The main characteristic of this type of galaxies - intensive production of hydrogen and the lack of heavy elements, such as metals (exception may be only a very small amount of lithium).
However, astronomers are still not sure whether the galaxies recorded "Subaru" is a very old, or they are not so old as it seems, and the visible were only due to the thinning of the layer of cosmic gas, which, until recently, I hid them.
3. Magic Island Titana
The largest moon of Saturn, Titan, is perhaps the most interesting satellite in the solar system. In fact, it is very similar to the primitive Earth, with its atmosphere, liquids, and even with the proposed geologic activity.
In 2013, the year the unit "Cassini", which is in orbit of the satellite, observed on the surface of a completely new area of land that mysteriously appeared in the second largest sea Titan - Ligeria Mare.
Shortly thereafter, the "magic island" as mysteriously disappeared in a transparent methane-ethane sea, in which the temperature - minus 200 degrees Celsius.
Then he reappeared, but this time its area was greater. The device "Cassini" is found during the last scan of the moon's surface.
This "moveable" area of land may serve as a clear demonstration of the fact that the seas and oceans on Titan - a dynamic component of the active medium, and their characteristics change.
Nevertheless, astronomers still can not explain what the physical processes are behind the emergence of this ephemeral "islands».
4. An asteroid with koltsami
All the gas giants are surrounded by rings. Most of these rings is not too noticeable (except massive rings of Saturn, of course). Recently, astronomers have discovered the first complete ring around the celestial body is much smaller.
It is an asteroid with a diameter of 250 km. And it boasts its own ring system.
First Chariklo Doctors unremarkable piece of space rock. But having considered it carefully, astronomers noticed that it comes from some abnormal light. This light is eclipsed a distant star and then reached telescopes. The eclipse was observed twice: before and after crossing the asteroid's orbit stars. This fact has caused bewilderment of experts.
It turned out that Chariklo has not one, but two "cosmic necklace." These rings are composed mostly of ice, with the width of the outer, larger rings up to 7 km.
Some small asteroids have "moon", the little satellites orbiting them. However Chariklo - is unique because no one had ever previously observed asteroids with rings.
To explain the origin of these rings, astronomers find it difficult. It is assumed that they could arise from the impact. That is, they may be the remnants of a foreign celestial body, which was destroyed in a collision with Chariklo. Or it may be the remains of the Chariklo who broke away from him at the time of the collision.
5. Unexplained excess ultrafioleta
We are proud that we are able to find the most different kinds of balance in space. One such balance - balance between ultraviolet radiation and hydrogen. Both these components are always co-exist, and in certain proportions.
A recent study, however, showed a lack of production of UV photons by all known sources (when compared with the predicted output value of 400% divergence).
Lead researcher Joon Kollmeyer compares this discovery with a situation where you walk into an incredibly brightly lit room and you see there is only a couple of dim bulbs, which in principle can not give as much light.
Ultraviolet radiation in space can go from two objects, either by unruly young stars, or by massive black holes.
But the fact of the ultraviolet radiation is much more than they can develop these two sources.
Experts can not explain what caused such a huge production of UV and are forced to admit that "at least one thing that we, in our opinion, they knew about the universe does not work».
And that's bad because before the opening balance between the hydrogen and the ultraviolet light was considered quite understandable.
It is also interesting that all these oddities with ultraviolet fixed only at certain distances. But when astronomers peer farther into space, they find that all their rules balance work fine. Perhaps an excess of ultraviolet radiation - is the result of some exotic and hitherto unknown to mankind processes. Such as the collapse of "dark matter».
6. Unusual X luchi
Very unusual X-ray pulses come from the center of the galaxy Andromeda and Perseus. The spectrum does not coincide with any of the known spectrum of the particles or atoms.
So astronomers now, to put it mildly, are confused and believe that in this situation there is the prospect of a scientific breakthrough, since these strange rays may be the first real proof of the existence of "dark matter».
"Dark Matter" - a kind of invisible mass that makes up most of the universe. This matter may be a set of so-called "sterile neutrinos" that may exist or may not exist - it all depends on who you ask about them.
These alleged particles supposedly generate X-rays just before its decay, which may explain the unusual X-ray bursts recorded by the above-mentioned centers of galaxies.
7. Shestihvosty asteroid
Telescope "Hubble" has shown us another incredible asteroid, who believes that he - a comet. Comet is easily recognized by its extremely bright tail. But these asteroids do not have tails, because their composition is too little ice, and too much stone and various heavy elements.
Since the discovery of the asteroid, which has not one, but six tails, was a real surprise to experts. Asteroid P / 2013 R5 - this is truly unique shestihvostaya find. It spews into space matter their tails, like a lawn sprinkler.
It is not clear why this place because it looks and behaves well. The assumption was that the tail - the result of the rotation of the asteroid, and that it rotates so fast that it will soon destroy itself.
Its low gravity does not match the high speed of rotation, so that this rotation one can simply break it into pieces. And while it is separated from the very small fragments, which are scattered under the pressure of sunlight, with the result that there are dazzling tails.
8. HD 106906b: distant monstr
Planet HD 106906b is enormous. This monster is 11 times larger than Jupiter, and its strange orbit shows us how little we still know about the formation of planets. Distance from HD 106906b to its own stars of 650 a. e. (a. e. - "astronomical unit" is equal to the distance from the Sun to the Earth).
Even Neptune, a very far-away planet from the Sun, is located at a distance of just 60 a. e. It is far away, but does not go to any comparison with the distance HD 106906b.
Now, astronomers are trying to explain how this planet can exist, given its tremendous mass and an enormous length of the orbit.
The fact that the forces responsible for the formation of planets, do not work at such a great distance from the star. As a result, it has been suggested that HD 106906b was formed during the collapse of a large ring of debris. The problem is that this planet - too massive, so this version sounds implausible. And astronomers usual "drives" from which arise the planet simply can not contain the number of the material, which would be enough to form such a giant.
9. Storm on Urane
Uranus caught astronomers by surprise. The second most distant planet of the solar system has never differed violent temper, but right now there inexplicably began storm.
Large storms on Uranus, astronomers expect in the year 2007, that's when the planet passed half of its 82-year orbit, and there come the equinox. After this storm were to go into decline.
But there is no recession storm activity was not observed.
With no domestic sources of heat, the green giant has to hope that it will be fed by solar storms emissions.
But astronomers from the University of California has recently recorded higher activity in the northern hemisphere of the planet, which is covered with a layer of the frozen methane. Some of the storms raging there shone very bright, which is why astronomers were able to see their reflections.
It is not clear how such a storm can be powerful, without solar recharge. The northern hemisphere of the planet is in the shadows, but nonetheless continues to show a strong storm activity. There is a theory that the vortices occur deep in the atmosphere of this planet, and cause them to processes similar to those observed on Jupiter.
10. KIC 2856960: System of three zvёzd
Kepler observatory, as a rule, is engaged in the hunt for new planets. However, its employees have spent as much as four years in the monitoring of three gravitationally bound stars - KIC 2856960. It is a system of three stars, two stars when around dwarf rotates third.
But once the observatory noticed that the light coming from the system, broke four times as many as during the day. Also, experts have observed another short eclipse every 204 days. This eclipse caused a third star. Maybe someone would think that a four-year observation is enough to thoroughly explore the KIC 2856960.
Astronomers think so too.
But after all the calculations they have completely lost the understanding of the behavior of three stars. And what's more, they even failed to calculate their weight, although this is usually done quite easily.
To date, this triple star system has got astronomers stumped. They have an answer that fit their calculations, but that is completely illogical: KIC 2856960 triple system can hide a fourth star whose orbit is so perfectly coincides with the orbit of the third star, which the pair seems a single entity.