It all started with the fact that I bought a plot of land in the village, past which does not pass the electrical wires. "It's okay - I thought. - After all, according to the law I need to connect to the power of 6 months from the date of the contract. " If I knew then that I would have to learn self-contained power supply and plunge into the world of solar energy ...
In the first part I will try to highlight the theoretical justification of their choices and calculations that will facilitate the understanding of the volume of investments for the construction of its own power system.
The second part will describe the practical implementation of their ideas with the economic calculations, the use of equipment and circuitry operating the power system. Also describe the advantages, disadvantages and their own mistakes in the realized project.
In the third, if it comes up, talk about plans to integrate an autonomous power system and a conventional power grid network in a private home.
The realization that electricity yet, and the house has already been assembled, it is spring, when it started building and finishing the season. And if the house were collected by tarahtyaschego gasoline generator, you live with such tarahtelkoy Village impossible and costly for a drill or a pair of light bulbs to drive 2, 5 kW gasoline generator. It's very easy to deduce the first rule: in the village of need GASOLINE, if there is a need for electricity at any time. Network unstable and repair them, no one will in the first minutes after the crash. The second rule: the generator has to work on the same type of fuel , as the machine. If the fuel is suddenly over, can be drained out of the car, and if the tank ran dry in the car, you can spend the reverse procedure.
If you look in the left corner, you can see how the generator works for one drill and radio. After this picture began to creep into the idea that electricity is necessary not so much, but often. For example, in the evening to cover the house, which takes about 100 watts of power. Vitali thought about buying a second, low-power gasoline generator, but were swept away by a number of reasons: tarahtenie, maintenance, mechanics, and thus wear and sooner or later failure. You had something autonomous, simple, reliable.
Having studied the forum avtonomschikov rereading hundreds of branches and learn to distinguish between a single crystal from a polycrystalline sample, it was decided to use solar energy for the benefit particularly taken home. After Habré many reports about how another cellular company in a remote region spent a lot of rubles and was able to save even more, and everything clearly, with their hands and by example.
We now turn to the theory. Main, what would have to fight in a house with an autonomous power system (hereinafter avtonomkoy), so it is with the desire of all households include kettles, irons, microwave ovens and other appliances that consume a crazy kilowatts of energy. For hairdryers and irons can run the generator.
So, the first step is to eliminate most appliances that we use in everyday life: electric kettles, electric cookers and others. Replacement will be any gas stove and gas cylinder, which can fill almost any gas stations. So get ready and warmed by means of gas - it's the third rule avtonomki.
Lighting LEDs. You can take the LED assembly, individual LEDs or LED strip. In the latter case can be purchased wholesale Chinese online store directly on the house and decently seknomoit. The main task - is to select the voltage equal to the voltage LED energy storage in the home. After all, any conversion will eat up the extra watts. Hence the fourth rule: LED lighting wherever possible.
Motion sensors seriously help to save electricity - is also found empirically. On the way to the toilet, the stairs to the second floor or in the hallway is best to put a motion sensor and LED strip. This will avoid walking in the dark for the light switch and save on unnecessary energy loss when someone forgot to click the button.
Cost of such a sensor is of the order of 300-350 rubles, but it saves a lot of nerves and energy. Own consumption is negligible in comparison with the included lighting and forgotten. One amusing case study: pets quickly calculated the range of the sensor and night fun entering and leaving the zone of visibility, including myself light.
And now for the technology, which will need to create avtonomku on solar energy:
2. Charge controller from solar panels:
3. Batteries. In discussing the type of battery has been broken so many copies that even not want to remember. One of the biggest challenges and the most expensive part of the system:
4. Inverter from DC to AC to 220V:
This four basic elements of an autonomous energy system based on solar batteries. On the extension of the functional I will tell in the second, practical part, as long as the minimum avtonomku to sign for a country house where you want the evening to watch TV, go out with a laptop in the network and in the light of the lamp to sit at the table. All considered on the basis of central Russia in the period from April to September. At other times of the year the sun is much smaller, and the holiday season is almost closed or not yet opened.
Take a baseline consumption:
1. the average consumption of a laptop with a 80 Wh will work 5 hours a day
2. The average TV consumption 40 Wh (LCD) will work 3 hours a day
3. lighting 3 LED Strip (24 W \ pc), which is enough room on the order of 40 sq.m. will work 4 hours
Total we have the need of energy: 808 Wh
If the energy storage will be selected normal car battery with a voltage of 12 V, the evening will be spent over 67 Ah. In order not to drop the battery and prolong its service life, it is recommended to discharge the battery no more than 30%, and thus the necessary capacity is 200 Ah and above. In addition, during the daylight hours will need to fill in ampere-hours spent, but still need to take into account the efficiency and the volatility of the sun to pick up the required number of solar panels. Assume that the sun will shine for 8 hours, of which it will be cloudy for 3 hours and efficiency of energy production will fall. Thus, we must compensate 67 Ah for 5 hours. It would seem that nothing could be simpler: 14 And pour 5 hours and all, but solar energy are many nuances. Batteries do not take charge of linearly - to the "filling" battery energy takes the current is reduced and the last hours of charging is very slow.
Turning to the calculation of the necessary equipment that will be required for the electrification of preobresti country house, we get:
1. Солнечная Battery 2 pcs x 100 W - 15000 p
2. Контроллер charge easiest - 800r
3. Аккумулятор 190 Ah - 8500 p
4. 3 LED Strip - 1200 r.
5. Инвертер 12V-220V - 2000P.
Total: 27500 rubles
Equipment is considered the most expensive in view of the minimum comfort, as described above. If the material is like and want to see the implementation of a more powerful and operating system, please let them know that I began to write the second part.