It is no secret that during the Second World War, civil industry meet the needs of the military departments and agencies. We decided to recall what tanks and self-propelled guns produced the famous car companies during the bloodiest conflict in the history of mankind.
11 photo. Source
- "Gorky Automobile Plant" (GAZ) -
SU-76 (factory index SU-12)
Years: 1942 - 1945
Total output: 14,292 pieces
The main suppliers of armored vehicles in the Red Army were tractor factories. Kirov plant in Leningrad, collected the famous KV-1 and KV-2, and the most massive tank of the Second World War - the legendary "Thirty" released in Kharkov and Chelyabinsk in the Urals. However, a significant contribution to the tank capacity of the country and introduced Gorky Automobile Plant. Even before the war, it collected a pilot batch of floating tankettes T-38, and later began to produce a reconnaissance light tank T-70 and set up his base of "self-propelled" SU-76.
The machine, designed for direct fire support of infantry, constructively proved quite successful. Lightweight, compact, unobtrusive "drying" has turned out very dynamic thanks to twin power unit of the two-line six-cylinder petrol engines with a total capacity of 140 horsepower. Divisional Gun ZIS-3 76-gauge, 2 mm allowed to deal effectively with the majority of German tanks, with the exception of "Tiger" and heavily armored self-propelled guns.
Overall, the Su-76 has established itself as a successful car cheap to manufacture, easy to use and effective at the correct combat use. Unfortunately, the 76th is not often used for its main purpose - artpodderzhki infantry, destroying fortified emplacements, the fight against lightly armored tanks and armored vehicles. "Drying" had to fulfill the role of machines break, and even tank destroyers, which led to high losses among the crews. Hence, in fact, a very eloquent nickname machines: eg, "mass grave."
- Skoda Works -
Jagdpanzer 38 (t) Hetzer («Huntsman») (Sd.Kfz. 138/2)
Years: 1944 - 1945
Total amount of issue: 3145 pieces
Virtually the entire Czech industry caught in the zone of German occupation, over seven years, supplied the Wehrmacht equipment from staff cars and rifles to guns and tanks. Perhaps the most famous armored car, made in the Czech Republic, - self-propelled gun Jagdpanzer 38 «Hetzer». This Tank Destroyers on the chassis of a light tank Pz.38 (t) developed in the middle of the war as a cheaper alternative in the production of tank destroyers Stug III.
"Hetzer", which translated from German means "huntsman", combined very compact dimensions - length is less than five meters in height only about two - with low weight (only 15 tons), other than the frontal armor and powerful weapons. 75-mm anti-tank gun effectively fought with virtually any military equipment as allies East and on the Western Front. This magnificent settings disguise allows the crew "Hetzer" close and shoot the enemy at bay for sure.
Total for the period from 1944 to 1945 years in factories Skoda Works and the Böhmisch-Mährische Maschinenfabrik AG issued, respectively 780 and 2047 "rangers". However, the assembly of a successful self-propelled guns, and continued at the end of hostilities. "Hetzer", for example, has long been in the service of the Swiss Armed Forces.
- Daimler-Benz -
Panzerkampfwagen V Panther («Panther») (PzKpfw V «Panther»)
Years: 1942 - 1945
Total amount of issue: 5976 pieces
One of the most famous tanks of the Second World traditionally German industry was born as a result of creative competition. In the spring of 1942, the projects of a medium tank that was to deal effectively with the Soviet T-34, presented the design offices of MAN and Daimler-Benz.
Representatives of the latter too literally embraced terms of reference and largely copied the design of the Soviet legend. Among other things, CB Daimler-Benz offered even refuse to use everywhere in the German tank at the time of gasoline engines to diesel. The decision of how reasonable (efficiency of diesel engines in the Soviet machine was never in doubt), and so utopian - a suitable diesel engine of the Germans at that time simply did not exist. No wonder that in the end to the industrial production has been recommended by the project, developed by MAN.
A "Daimler" has got to build a machine that was partitioned between enterprises MAN, Daimler-Benz and Henschel.
- Cadillac -
Light Tank M3 Stuart («Stewart»)
Years: 1941 - 1945
Total amount of issue: over 25 000 pieces
It's hard to believe, but until the beginning of World War II the US military did not consider tanks serious force capable of tackling the battlefield important tasks. Not surprisingly, the most talented American tank designer of John Christie never got recognition at home. But he developed the machine as a result of this spying and smuggling stories have appeared in the Soviet Union, where they became the basis for a progressive family wheel-tracked vehicles BT series ("fast-moving tanks»).
But for US military vehicles of the initial period of the war and without tears will not look! Take even the most massive of all the "Yankee tanks» M3 Stuart - high silhouette rivet armor, weapons ridiculous, weak dynamics of the terrain, gasoline engine, prone to light a fire ...
Tank designed to support the infantry, could not even take care of himself. Only in the Pacific theater of operations "stewards" of production Cadillac acted more or less effectively. And even then, only because the tanks from Japan were more failures.
- Cadillac -
Light Tank M24 Chaffee («Chaffee»)
Years: 1944 - 1945
Total amount of issue: 4731 pieces
Most, if not all, design flaws M3 / M5 Stuart took into account when developing the next light tank. And I must say, M24 appeared in all respects much more successful machine. Retaining compact dimensions and low weight predecessor, he added in the remaining components. "Chaffee" featured a good book for a light tank, excellent dynamics - the two paired "kadillakovskih» V8 allows you to dial 56 kilometers per hour - and 75-mm gun capable of successfully fighting with the average German tanks.
True, M24, named in honor of the American General Edna Chaffee Tank, appeared on the front only in the final period of the war. But the progressive design allowed it to maintain a good shape, and after the capitulation of Axis forces. Suffice it to recall that "Chaffee" quite effectively used during the Korean war in the early 50s, and the last combat use of M24 falls on the Indo-Pakistani conflict in 1971.
- Buick -
Gun motor carriage M18 Hellcat («witch»)
Years: 1943 - 1943
Total amount of issue: 2507
The US military doctrine in matters of armored vehicles looked quite unconventional. For example, anti-self-propelled units in the minds of overseas generals draw not slow, well-armored carriages for powerful weapons, but on the contrary - light, manoeuvrable machine, usually with a rotating tower - very uncharacteristic feature "samohodkostroeniya».
It is for such non-traditional scheme built one of the most famous PT ACS, operated by the American forces - M18 Hellcat. Developed in the middle of the war, "witch", the release of which is established in the factory of the company Buick, due to its low weight (only 17 tons) and 9-cylinder radial motor Continental (345-450 horsepower) went down in history as the most among all the Fleet tanks and self-propelled guns II World. Maximum speed of the car was approaching 100 kilometers per hour - and it is on tracks! Sorry, penetrating power of 76-millimeter gun was not as impressive as the speaker. However, having met with a serious opponent, the crew of "The Witch" was always able to successfully withdraw.
- Ford -
Gun motor carriage M10 Wolverine («Wolverine»)
Years: 1942 - 1944
Total amount of issue: 6706 pieces
Preceded M18 Hellcat - M10 Wolverine «Wolverine" also refers to the number of unorthodox self-propelled guns: a rotating tower, semi conning tower and a very good speaker. However, in contrast to the "witches", created from scratch, M10 was based on the chassis of the medium tank M4 Sherman, a legacy of taking over his high silhouette, complicates the disguise. Another obvious lack of "Wolverine" - a very slow rotation of the tower. A full 360 degrees of rotation already held two minutes! So that with the commissioning of a more perfect M18, release Wolverine, settled on the "Ford" factory immediately stopped.
Despite the shortcomings, M10 is actively used in combat in North Africa, as well as the Normandy landings, the liberation of Italy and the Ardennes operation.
- Vauxhall (subsidiary of GM) -
Tank Mk.IV A22 Churchill («Churchill»)
Years: 1942 - 1945
Total amount of issue: 7368 pieces
British tanks, unlike military aircraft, is rarely mentioned in the context of the heroic. As a rule, they were slow, poorly armed, and although some of the models has a very powerful armor, their combat effectiveness is significantly inferior to the best Soviet and German counterparts.
This fully applies to machines Series Churchill, releases including factories car company Vauxhall - the British "daughter» General Motors. "Churchill", named after the charismatic prime minister, was a heavy tank with the appropriate mass dynamics, booking, but ... absolutely ridiculous weapons.
Early models generally short-staffed 40-millimeter cannon, almost helpless when dealing with German medium tanks. Not surprisingly, "Cerci," quite a number who came to serve in the Red Army, was used only as an infantry support vehicles.
- Renault -
Years: 1936 - 1940
Total amount of issue: 1635
Joking aside, the tanks - this is the second name of Renault! At the time, armored combat vehicle, even wore the emblem of the French firm. By the way, the first Soviet tank, known as the big name "Freedom Fighter Comrade Lenin," is a "conditionally legitimate" copy of the Renault FT17.
Release of the French armored vehicles were actively engaged in the interwar period, achieving in this case is quite remarkable success.
Considering the concept of the tank primarily as a means to support the infantry, French engineers have paid no attention to the dynamics - the speed of the tank should not be higher than the chain speed infantrymen. The controversial proposition, of course, but it is possible to increase the security of armored vehicles.
As a result, it is extremely slow Renault R35, was in service of the French army at the time of the invasion of Nazi troops in 1940, it was virtually invulnerable to fire anti-tank artillery. German shells literally bounced off the front armor 35's like peas! If not low firepower and, of course, poorly trained crews of French tanks, the script has the World in 1940, I could go a completely different way.
- Mitsubishi -
ype 95 Ha-Go
Years: 1936 - 1943
Total amount of issue: 2300
Many have heard about the splendor of Japanese combat aircraft in 1941, a cut above the planes Americans. But Japanese tanks appeared monsters from the Stone Age. In a way, unsuitable to the requirements of the World due to the construction of machines by the nature of armed conflict - after Japan and the US were mostly naval war in which the tanks originally assigned very limited supporting role.
Evaluate the effectiveness of the use of armored vehicles from Japan may be on the famous clash of imperial units and the Red Army at Khalkhin Gol in 1939. Some local successes light tanks Ha-Go manufacturing concern Mitsubishi drowned in the echo resounding defeat of the Japanese side.
The development of more modern machines is constantly putting off the Japanese, and the first prototypes appeared only when the course of the global confrontation was already a foregone conclusion
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