9 interesting thought experiments

Try to understand these interesting conclusions

Philosophy is not a science, philosophy - a way of life. Arguments about the imaginary bugs in boxes, not born pigs and life spider urinal can cause serious concerns for the mental health of participants in these discussions, but not in a hurry to twist a finger at his temple - better try to think what is behind this or that, it would seem far-fetched problem .

With the help of these mental exercises a person can solve the most complex questions of life and consciousness (you, by the way, already know that for you first?), And even find peace of mind. Of course, while another philosopher throw another paradoxical task. We offer you 9 thought experiments that may not change your life, but, at least, make think hard.

1. The dilemma of the prisoner

The classical problem of the theory of games, in which the subject must decide to confess to a crime or not, despite the fact that he does not know how to answer his accomplice.

Here's how to formulate a prisoner's dilemma "Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy»:
"Two arrested for bank robbery and placed in different cells. The investigator asked each deal: "If you confess and your accomplice will be silent, I'll take all the charges against you, and he will receive a great time. If co-defendant will testify, and you will be silent, let him go and put you at exactly the same time. If you recognize the two, you get the time, but I have it arranged for you two parole. If neither of you is not recognized, it is necessary to put both of them, but not for long, because direct evidence against you is no "».

Assuming that both of the accused only care about the minimum time for yourself, everyone there is a difficult dilemma in which the option of betrayal dominates cooperation with an accomplice because of the fact that one does not know how the other will behave. The best way out for both is silent, however, arguing rationally, almost everyone comes to that deliver more profitable than to cooperate, no matter how will behave accomplice. Rationality everyone together leads them to irrational decisions.

2. Room Mary

This thought experiment is directed against the philosophy of physicalism as the belief that everything in the world, including the mental processes of a physical nature. From the experiment, it follows that there are non-physical properties of the world that you can perceive only through direct experience.

Frank Jackson

One of the creators of the concept, Frank Jackson, stated the problem well:

"Mary, a brilliant scientist, forced to explore the world of black and white room via a black and white monitor. She specializes in the neurophysiology of vision, and assume it has the greatest possible physical information that can be obtained about what we feel when we see ripe tomatoes, or the sky, or when we use the word "red", "blue", and so on. For example, it knows which combination of wavelengths emitted air stimulate the retina, and what exactly is happening in the central nervous system when pronounce terms "blue sky". What will happen when Mary will come out of his room, or when it will color monitor? Will she know anything new? »

In other words, Mary knows everything about the color, but the most important thing: she had never seen any colors other than shades of black and white, so can not tell the difference between academic knowledge and actual experience.

This problem makes it clear that even objective observation does not allow a person to get an idea of ​​all the properties of the object. Simply put, we can not imagine what it is we do not know.

3. Beetle in a box


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