The news was announced at held in Chelyabinsk interregional forum "Energy. Energy efficiency in 2016." Great interest was aroused and construction project in the southern Urals of the energy cluster of wind farms. But is in the region to the emergence of renewable energy sources? And what there can be reefs? About it our conversation with the Professor southern-the Ural agricultural University, doctor of technical Sciences Saken Seriatim. Solar project
— whether it makes sense to build in the Chelyabinsk region of solar power? In my opinion, for good reason. Already the legislative framework, the mechanism of development of small alternative energy. Our region is short of energy, your own power is not enough, and solar and wind power will partially help to solve this problem. We have calculated the amount of solar radiation in the area — it is enough: on a summer day 20-30 megajoules per square meter, and in the winter 4-5 times less. In Troitsk days of sunshine a year, almost the same as in Sochi! It is no coincidence that Chelyabinsk region is planned the construction of solar power plants. Total capacity could reach 60 MW at a total investment of more than 6.3 billion rubles. Possible the participation of subsidiaries of group of companies "Renova" belonging to Victor Vekselberg, in the construction of solar power plants in the Trinity, Varna and Oktyabrsky districts. The megaproject interest of the Corporation "SKOLKOVO" and "RUSNANO".
But while solar power plant (SPP) for Russia are rare. — The fact that solar energy is the most expensive, its production requires huge investments, and it depends on the weather conditions. But with the advent of the wholesale energy market, it becomes economically advantageous. Because this energy is actually "free", does not require raw materials and environmentally friendly. About it the speech went at the all-Russian energy forum in Bashkortostan Republic, where I visited in October 2016. We also participated in the opening of the largest in Russia Bugaichenko solar power. Three years ago, SES introduced in the Altai, and last summer — in the Orenburg region. — The prototype of the SES — solar panels on the roofs, in General, is not a new thing... In his time in Bredinsky area installed solar collector, obogrevatel water for the summer milking platform of Agrofirm. Then its "heating" efficiency was only 40 %. But over the years science has moved forward and we are in one of the houses put experimental solar collector with an efficiency of 80 %! His secret — in vacuum technology, which reduces energy loss to a minimum. We have adapted the German design to local conditions. And now, for example, Chelyabinsk, scientists are using nanotechnology to develop solar panels of high strength with high energy efficiency. And the light and heat
— But Autonomous heat supply "from the Sun" does not solve the problem of self-sufficiency with electricity... — We have developed a solar powered mini-SES dual purpose. For example, solar panels, capable of heating the boiler to produce both heat and electricity. A lot of interesting developments and academician Dmitry strebkova of the all-Russian Institute of electrification, for example, the matrix of the solar battery with a high output voltage. The company "Renova" used solar panels of its own production on the basis of thin-film technology developed in Switzerland using microhemorrhage silicon. Their cost is less than polycrystalline, but the low efficiency of conversion of solar energy into electrical energy is only 9 %. For comparison: there is a Russian solar panels, the efficiency of which is twice more — 18 %. And "solar energy" can accumulate in a battery that it will issue night. — And what is the contribution of your scientific team? We figured out how to "connect" solar panels and tablecollection have developed their wiring diagrams to make the autonomy of the heating system. In addition, a graduate student Denis Polivoda and assistant in the Department Arsen Doskanova developed the "steam technology" solar power generator and heat pump system "on the principle of a refrigerator." It is known that freon gas during the energy exchange begins to boil at a low temperature and heats the coolant is the effect of the "reverse-cycle" of Carnot. Why not use it? For example, rooftop solar collectors produce low-temperature heat, and the water passing through the heat pump, heats up and is fed into the heating system. There is double benefit and cost reduction. The idea has already found application in the company where Arsene Doskenov worked as a designer: there drilled a well, put the heat pump and heat the room.
Facilities on the palm
— Which the emission spectrum is suitable for solar panels? And how to define it? — Infrared light causes them to heat efficiency is reduced. To determine the wavelength of light we graduate student Alexei CHACOM invented the device, which is registered for patent. By measuring the spectrum of light, found that solar panels work better on the brink of infrared and visible light. The experiments showed that there are materials capable of converting solar light into the desired range. To continue studies prepare an application to the competition on competition of Russian science Foundation grant. — How to protect "solar energy" from the surprises of the Ural weather? — We developed technology of thawing of snow on the roof, where solar panels: is passed through them current, they heat up and thaw. Such a device he had put on the roof of his house, and no longer need to risk their lives to clear snow. We found the solution to the problem of concentration of helioenergy metal mirror reflecting sunlight to the solar battery. But there are some disadvantages: it heats up the efficiency drops. We came up with a cooling system: on the back of the solar panels enters the coolant-water is heated and heats the house. And this free heat and hot water! Rural wind farm
— Besides the Sun, there is another renewable source of natural energy — wind... Wind generators are widely used in the West. In Holland and Germany energometrika long been part of the local landscape. In Russia they can be found in Kaliningrad, and Rostov regions. And the company Fortum is building a wind farm in the Ulyanovsk region, which plans to introduce in September 2017. Its capacity will be 35 MW, the project cost 65 million euros. And the other, "T Plus", which is included into holding "Renova group", under the innovation support of "RUSNANO" plans to build a wind farm with a capacity of 10 times more is 300 MW. — Why would investors not to build a wind farm in the Chelyabinsk region? We made the offer. After reviewing the situation with the winds, we have issued recommendations on the implementation of the megaproject. In the majority of territories of area the wind is weak, and it makes sense to create a network of "pie" of wind farms that to supply the substation. Such wind farms will be merged into wind power station on the basis of small wind turbines, on average, 50 kW. And they, in turn, are connected with access to trunk lines. It is much cheaper than single windmills. You can use the experience of independent power supply of agriculture. For example, Trinity farmer Sergei Burylov put on his farm two wind turbines. The American "windmill" set in the Peaceful village of Plemzavod "Russia" for the supply of the barn. We are involved in the project development of wind turbines for hunting Verkhneuralsk district. CHP will warm village
— But heat their homes with electricity is expensive, gas is much cheaper... Is true, but the laying of pipelines to small villages, conducting due to the budget settlement networks will cost several times more expensive not to mention unaffordable expenditures villagers to "plant" the pipe into the house. Today, the average gasification level in the region — about 70 %, but only slightly more than half of natural gas, and the rest is imported. We developed the project as a cheap energy can be the solution. The idea is to combine small generation with gasification. In big villages, which supplied gas, proposed to build a gas piston mini-CHP plant, which will supply heat to schools and hospitals, and electricity in small villages. It will heat the house, and because the rate for the village below, this is a considerable savings. In our opinion, the owner of such mini-CHP can be a municipality. But local authorities often do not want to take care of "the privateers", limited to the social sphere. Perhaps this project will be launched under private-public partnership. In any case, an innovative small-scale power generation — solar-wind, and gas — can be a great help in solving rural problems. published