Most people take for granted that we still have not made contact with an extraterrestrial civilization. However, they do not know that it is time. Our Galaxy is so old that every corner had to visit many, many times by now. None of the theories put forward so far, cannot satisfactorily explain this great silence. We studied possible explanations for the Fermi paradox, but now, I think it's time to appeal to the most impossible options.
When there is no solution even on paper, it can be absolutely any. The standard explanation of the Fermi paradox is well known, we will not refer to them. Among them — the hypothesis of "rare Earth" (the suggestion that life is exceptionally rare), the notion of complexity of space travel insanely long distances, the Great filter hypothesis (the assumption that all sufficiently advanced civilizations destroy themselves before I get out on the intergalactic level), or that we just aren't interesting.
But sometimes the answer to a strange question can be equally strange. In this context, the question "Where is everybody?" would be extremely strange, since it has not yet found the answers. And here are the options.Zoo hypothesis
even Though it sounds like the plot of an episode of "twilight Zone", it is possible that we are stuck in some heavenly the cage. An extraterrestrial civilization might stumble on our blue ball a long time ago, but for some reason, watching us from afar. Maybe we are just fun (like monkeys in the zoo), or we need them for scientific purposes. Anyway, they leave us alone and try not to get in contact.
This idea was first proposed by John ball in 1973, who argued that extraterrestrial intelligent life may be ubiquitous, but "an unsuccessful attempt to contact us can be understood in the context of what they left us, like a sanctuary or a zoo." We can be part of a huge nature reserve, which is almost there, or are these limits adequate to the undisturbed development of intelligent life. This idea directly corresponds to the "Prime Directive" from Star trek — civilization left to themselves until they reach a certain level of technological development. The same ideas hold ufologists, claiming that the aliens are everywhere, but watching us from afar.A voluntary quarantine
Is kind of the opposite of the zoo hypothesis. Aliens may be dangerous. It is extremely dangerous. Thus, instead of having to travel around the galaxy in spaceships, and hope that each counter will superdruzhelyuben, extraterrestrial civilizations collectively and independently came to the conclusion to sit quietly and not to attract attention.
Why not? It would be quite reasonable to conclude, especially in light of the Fermi paradox, that the cosmos is teeming with danger — whether imperialist civilization on the March or war probes, Berserkers, sterilizing everything in its path. To be sure that nobody will disturb them, advanced extraterrestrial civilizations can build the perimeter of the probe Sandberg (police self-replicating probes), to ensure that no one gets.Hypothesis flies in the crosshairs
Imagine there is a certain "Prime Directive", but extraterrestrials hovering over us with a giant hammer, ready to kill us as soon as something goes not the way they want. Such aliens will be something like Gort from "the Day the Earth stopped" will try to keep the peace of the galaxy at any cost. "There is no limit to what Gort could do, said Klaatu. — He could destroy the Earth." What are waiting for Gort or other advanced extraterrestrial civilizations? Perhaps the technological singularity. The singularity may lead to poslenageorgerngo of superintelligence (ISI), which can become a threat to the entire galaxy. Thus, to prevent the development of such bad intelligence and giving chances to good intelligences for the development of the galactic hammer in the air and waiting for the signal.We are made of meat
Just read a small part of the short story by Terry Bison nominated for several awards.
– They are meat.
Yes. They're made of meat.
– Error eliminated. We picked up a few copies from different parts of the world, brought on Board our ship-the scout and properly tested. They are completely out of meat.
– That's incredible! But what about radio signals? A message to the stars?
For communication they use radio waves, but the signals are not sent yourself. The signals come from machines.
But who builds these machines? That's who the right contact!
– They build. What I'm talking about. Meat making machines.
– What nonsense! How can meat make a machine? You want me to believe in meat with memory and emotions?
– Nothing, I don't want to. Just tell me what it is. It's the only intelligent beings in the whole sector, and thus consist of meat.
– They might be like Ortlieb? You know, this carbon intelligence that is in development is a meat phase?
– No. They're born meat and die meat. We studied them in the course of several life cycles – which they, incidentally, is very short. Do you know how many lives meat?
– Oh, spare me... Okay. Maybe they're still not completely meat? Well, remember these... baddiley. Meat head with an electron plasma brain inside.
– No! At first we thought so, too. Once their head is out of meat. But then, like I said, every one tested. From top to bottom. All solid meat. The outside what's inside.
– What about the brain?
– And, the brain is there, all right. But also from meat.
– Why are there thoughts?!
– I don't know, right? Thoughts the brain produces. Meat.
– Mind meat? You want me to believe in intelligent meat?
Hell yeah! Reasonable meat. Meat with feelings. With a conscience. Meat that dreams. All solid meat. The uptake?
– Oh God... are You serious?
– Absolutely. They earnestly made of meat, and the last hundred of years trying to get in touch.
– What do they want?
– To begin with – to talk... Then, apparently, to rummage around in the Universe, to enter the scientists of other worlds and steal their ideas with data. All as always.
– So we'll have to talk to meat?
– The fact of the matter is. So they keep saying in the messages: "Hello! Is there anyone alive? Anybody home?" – and stuff like that.
– That is really speaking? With words, ideas and concepts?
. Especially with the surrounding meat...
– But you said that they use radio!
– Yes, but... What do you think they hammer the air? Meat sounds. Know that plyamkane when you slap meat on meat? So they pereslavychi with each other. And even sing, passing the meat through a trickle of compressed air.
– That's crazy. Singing meat! This is too much... what do you recommend?
– Formal or between us?
– This way and that.
– Officially we're supposed to contact them, to welcome them and to open access to the Full roster of intelligent beings and mnogochastny minds in the sector, without prejudice, fear, and concessions from our side. But between us, I would be wiped the hell out of all their data and forget about them forever.
– I was hoping you'd say that.
– Measure, of course, forced. But there is a limit! Do we really want to meet meat?
– I totally agree! Well, we say to them, "Hey, meat! How are you?" And then what? And how many planets they have colonized?
– Only one. They can travel in special metal containers, but always live in a way not able. Also, being meat, they can only move in the space S. This does not allow them to develop the speed of light – and thus the probability for a contact to them is just insignificant. More precisely, the infinite small.
– So we'd better pretend that no one in the Universe?
– That's it.
– Severely... on the other hand, you're right: who wants to meet meat? And those who took on Board for testing – are you sure they didn't?
– If anyone remembers – still gonna think he's crazy. We penetrated their heads and flatten meat so that they could treat us like dreams.
– Dreams of meat... just Think – we dream of meat!
And then this whole sector of the map can be marked as uninhabited.
– Excellent! Totally agree. Both formally and between us. The case is closed. The other not? What else is funny, on the other side of the Galaxy?The hypothesis of the simulation
no one visited because we live in a computer simulation and this model does not contain any extraterrestrial companions for us.
If this is true, it implies several important things. First, these bandits, or the gods, as to see — has arranged everything so that we are the only civilization in the entire galaxy (or even Universe). Or a real Universe out there just yet, we here think that the world is huge, but it is a simulated bubble. If a tree falls in the forest but no one hears the sound of his fall, does it sound?
Another strange possibility is that the simulation is running Posthuman civilization in search of the answer to the Fermi paradox, or some other kind of strange question. Perhaps trying to test the various hypotheses (even preemptively considering a certain action), they run a billion different simulations, trying to determine the right options.The silence in the air
This theory is similar to the quarantine hypothesis, but not so paranoid. Not so, but paranoid. It is possible that all of us listen to, but the contact no one is trying. And for very good reasons.
David Brin suggests that the practice of Active SETI-like scream in the jungle (Active SETI is the deliberate transmission of radio signals of high power in the direction of possible star systems with life). Michael Michaud believes exactly the same: "Let's be honest, Active SETI is not scientific research. This is a deliberate attempt to provoke a reaction from the alien civilization whose capabilities, intentions, and distance from us is unknown to us. It is a political problem". Concern is expressed mainly in the fact that we can attract the attention of premature. Perhaps one day we will cease all attempts to contact the aliens. But what if every civilization in the cosmos has gone through exactly the same ladder? This means that the air is silence."
Perhaps even listening to the broadcast can be dangerous: where is the guarantee that SETI will download a malicious virus from outer space?All aliens are homebodies
, This option is not so much strange as possible. Developed extraterrestrial beings, upon reaching civilization type II Kardashev scale could lose all galactic ambitions. Once built the Dyson sphere or something, unknown to us, aliens will start an unknown fun. Massive supercomputers would be able to simulate universes within universes, life cycles within life cycles. The rest of the universe will seem boring and empty. The space will become a rearview mirror.We can't read the signs
it is possible that the signs and signals from extraterrestrial civilizations around us, but we just can't see them. Or are we stupid to notice them, or do we need more technology. In accordance with the current SETI approach, we need to listen to in anticipation of radiosignals. But civilizations who are much more developed we can use a completely different technique. They can signal lasers, for example. Lasers are good because it's tightly focused beams with a great capacity for the transmission. They can also penetrate through the dusty interstellar medium.
Or extraterrestrials can use the "business cards" using direct detection methods (that is, to build massive, perfect geometric structure like a triangle or square on an orbit around its star).
Stephen Webb has indicated that certain potential electromagnetic signals, gravitational signals, the signals of elementary particles, tachyons, something else that we have not yet discovered. It may be radio, but we don't know what frequency to tune to (the electromagnetic spectrum is extremely wide). In the end, we can find the messages where least expected — even in the code of your DNA.They are all on the edge of the galaxy
This is an interesting solution to the Fermi paradox was proposed by Milan Circuitcam and Robert Bradbury.
"We believe that the outer region of the galactic disk are the most likely sites for advanced search, SETI," — they wrote. The fact that sophisticated intelligent communities will tend to migrate outward through the galaxy at increasing their capacity of information processing. Why? Because civilization with machines at the base, with their powerful supercomputers, will have serious problems with heat dissipation. They have to camp where it is cool. And the outer rim of the galaxy is quite suitable.
In addition, postsingular extraterrestrials may live in places other than those where lives a life based on meat. Hence, advanced civilization will have no interest in exploring the habitable zone, inhabited by biological beings. Maybe we are looking in the wrong place. Stephen Wolfram once said that one day it will be possible to calculate without heat, so an explanation of the Fermi paradox will never fit him.Directed panspermia
we Might not be able to communicate with extraterrestrial civilizations, because they are them. Or our ancestors were by them. According to this theory, first proposed by Francis Crick, the aliens sow the sparks of life on other planets (sending, for example, spores to potentially fertile planets), and then leave. Forever. Or you can go back someday.
This idea is quite popular in science fiction circles.Bonus. The hypothesis of a phase transition
This hypothesis is similar to the hypothesis of "rare Earth", but suggests that the universe is still evolving and changing. Conditions for the maintenance of heightened intelligence appeared only recently. Cosmologist James Annis calls this model the phase transition of the Universe — a kind of astrophysical explanation for the paradox of the great cosmic silence.
According to Annisa possible regulatory mechanism that can explain all of this, is the frequency of gamma-ray bursts — sverhkategorijnoj events that literally sterilize large areas of the galaxy.
"If we assume that they are lethal to terrestrial life throughout the galaxy, need just one mechanism that will prevent the growth of intelligence at a certain point, from time to time." In other words, gamma-ray burst happen too often, and the intelligent life perishes before it gets the opportunity to move between galaxies. But since the frequency of gamma-ray flares decreases with time, things can change.
"The galaxy is currently undergoing phase transition from an equilibrium state in which there is no intelligence in another state, full of intelligent life," says Annis.
And then all will be well. published
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