Scientific achievements in 2013 (7 photos)

Big Data («Big Data»)

In 2013, even before all realized that sea of ​​data threatens to flood civilization, but at the same time, it is a valuable source of information and profits. You just need to know how to extract it, but this can not cope without advanced data science, the science of data, and powerful artificial intelligence. This, for example, the supercomputer IBM Watson, who won the quiz Jeopardy. Now he is Dr Watson: five copies of the supercomputer have been employed in US hospitals. It turned out that Watson, shoveled mountains of medical data, in many cases, diagnoses and picks up much more accurate treatment of doctors.





Coursera

World online university created by Stanford University and other major universities. Many consider it the prototype of the future of the institution. His courses remotely studying nearly three million students of all countries and ages. This year Coursera joined three Russian universities: MIPT, Graduate School of Economics and St. Petersburg State University.

Kepler

Space Observatory by NASA to search for exoplanets has completed work May 12, 2013 because of the failure of the orientation system. The mission started on March 6, 2009 and the second in less than four years, got phenomenal results.




Team "Kepler" has announced the opening of the 3538 candidates for the planet. The existence of more than 100 planets outside our solar system. Most importantly, the 674 candidate Earth-sized, and even in 1076 - no more than two dimensions of the Earth. That is, they can be a life similar to ours. In parts of the world even we found the atmosphere and have determined that the temperature is quite acceptable for a man. Deciphering the data continues.

Internet of Things

The emergence of smart things and laptop boosted the development of the Internet of things - today it is more human. It is connected to 10 billion objects: from smart homes and vehicles points to the "augmented reality" and fitness bracelets. RFID tag information transmitted in the network, applied to any goods, even tablets, and begin to interact with each other - things learn to talk about themselves. The main thing - that they do not conspire against us!

Interface brain - the brain

In 2013, the first time was able to conduct an experiment in which the movements of one person ran the thoughts of another. The two - Professor Rajesh Rao Andrea stucco and the University of Washington.




"Electrical brain signals were recorded by electroencephalograph sender. The second participant received information using rapidly changing magnetic field generated by a special device attached to the head of the section responsible for the wrist and fingers. Technology transcranial magnetic stimulation has long been used for the bloodless influence on the activity of a certain area of ​​the brain, "- said Rajesh Rao," PP ».

Connect

Functional connection - is a model of the nervous system, which shows how neurons communicate pulses in real time. Mapping brain activity this year was Barack Obama announced a major mega-project of American science. Europe is not far behind: the European Commission has allocated a billion grant for a project simulation of the human brain on a supercomputer, which is close to Lausanne is built Neyropolis - analogue CERN and Silicon Valley to study the brain. Analysts say the beginning of a new race whose purpose - to understand how the brain works, and to create artificial intelligence.

Yuri Milner

The successful Russian venture investor, earning billions on Internet projects is found with the right people. This year, he was head of the board of directors of Apple, creator of Google and Facebook founder established a prize Breakthrough Prize («Award for Breakthrough") in the field of biomedical research.




First prize winners, 11 prominent scientists have already received 3 million dollars. This is the biggest prize in the history of science (2, 5 times more Nobel Prize), excluding established in 2012 by him for physicists The Fundamental Physics Prize, which is the same amount. And that, apparently, is just the beginning. Just the other day he gave "The Giving Pledge" - joined the initiative of the Bill and Melinda Gates and Warren Buffett, pledging to donate to charity at least half of personal wealth. Milner said he was going to do not just give money to those who suffer, and to "invest in our best minds and our future together." One of these investments it made in the development of a system for electronic GENIUS DNA sequencing - the device the size of a computer, the creators of which promise to reduce the cost of a complete reading of the genome to an incredible $ 50. Learn oligarchs!

Elon Musk

The prototype of "Iron Man" seriously claiming that he was going to die on Mars, this year finally became a hero startups and innovators, succeeding in the role of Steve Jobs, who is now "just a good designer».




He created the first mass-market electric car Tesla S has become the most fashionable car of the year and the best-selling luxury sedan, ahead of "Mercedes" and BMW! Another of his brainchild, SpaceX, the first private space company, this year for the first time put into orbit a commercial satellite. His proposed draft transport Hyperloop (capsules, moving through the pipe between the cities at a speed of 1,000 km / h) in the details developed by a group of engineers involved in the project SpaceX. Musk himself is determined to transform the world, he dreams of elektrosamolete in the near future promises to finalize the super-cheap carrier rocket, which will return to the launch site and sit on a jet-powered and electric car, which does not need a driver.

Chebarkul

This small Urals town and close to the lake it became known thanks to the fall of the meteorite. At the beginning of the year the cosmic body fell to the ground, and the fall of its main piece managed to extract from the bottom of the lake.



Higgs. Man and boson

The Higgs boson Physicists around the world looking for 49 years. The team is now the Large Hadron Collider finally found him.



This elementary particle "does" all other particles mass. It was the last building block in the Standard Model - the theory that explains how the world of particles and how they interact with each other. Physicists have finally drawn a basic model of the material world. More specifically, the visible part, which is about 4, 5% by weight of the universe. The remaining 95, 5% - dark matter and dark energy, about which little is known. Physicists will do in the next 30 billion years. In the meantime, the man Higgs received the Nobel Prize for his theoretical predictions of the particle in 1964.

Andrei Konstantinov Alexei Torgashev Gregory Tarasevich
"Russian Reporter"

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