Take a look at the most significant and important discoveries for science, which occurred in 2012.
1st place: a ship of Pharaoh
Egyptologist Jan Tristant from the University of Sydney studied
response to the French archaeological expedition Professor Pierre Monte,
who in 1914 explored the tombs of the pharaohs near the town of Abu Ravash.
Suddenly he noticed something strange: French archaeologist wrote,
that the tomb was a wooden floor. It seemed strange -
because before that in Egyptian tombs have never met wooden floors.
He suggested that under the wooden beams hiding something else.
And sure enough - a tomb was found an ancient burial ship,
manufactured in 2950 BC Also found were pottery
beer and bread - to all appearances, it was not just a ship,
and grocery carts that accompanied the Pharaoh in the kingdom of the dead.
2nd place: Treasure of Kiryat
This treasure trove of jewels and coins were onaruzheny in the courtyard of an ordinary house in the town of Kiryat Shmona.
Apparently, these coins date back to the Bar Kochba revolt, which lasted from 132 to 135 years. BC
It is the oldest of gold coins found in the territory of Israel.
3rd place: Cladh Hallan
Two mummies of men and women were found in the ancient mine
near the Scottish town treasure-Hallan in 2001,
but this year the archaeologists who examined the skeletons,
came to the conclusion that this ancient European mummies - apparently,
these people have died about 1300 BC. e. - That is, at about the same time as Tutankhamun.
Archaeologists did not immediately realize that the skeletons were originally mummies:
their bodies were placed on a special year for the conservation of peat bog.
Thereafter, the bodies were apparently placed in a room
(and after a few hundred years, they were buried - the reasons for this rite,
It seems to remain unknown to us). Further study of the remains
It led to another startling discovery: it turns out, a male skeleton,
It is actually composed of three individual bones. Scientists today
We began to study the female skeleton, which seems,
is also made up of the remains of different people - at least, set,
skull mummy 200 years older than the rest of the body.
4th place: the first pots from China
Until recently it was believed that the appearance of the potter's wheel occurred about 10 thousand years ago
- During the first Neolithic technological revolution.
However, finding the pots in a cave located in Jiangxi Province
in the southeast of China, it shows that this period should be increased
at least twice - according to experts, these pots were
made on a potter's wheel 19 thousand years ago.
5th place: an ancient engraving vagina
This figure, depicting, according to the French archaeologists,
female external genitalia, not less than 37 thousand years.
In this cave Chauvet was parking the first Cro-Magnon -
the ancestors of modern man.
And, as we see, nothing human was alien.
6th place: Roman sandals
German archaeologists have found remains of Roman military camp near the town of Hermeskeil near Trier.
But more importantly, the researchers found the remains of 75 of sandals used by the Roman legions
- Until now, scientists have found virtually no army boots.
7th place: the cemetery of the victims Uitzilopochtli
Templo Mayor (Great Temple or) - was one of the main
temples of ancient Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan,
on the spot where today is Mexico City.
Nahuatl called Ueuteokali temple was dedicated to two gods at the same time,
- The god of war and Uitzilopochtli Tlaloc - god of rain and agriculture.
And so, this year they have unearthed one of the cemeteries,
where were buried the victims of bloody rites: a
1000 arm and leg bones, skulls and 45 jaws 250. Interestingly,
on the top of the mash bones lay complete skeleton -
the remains of the woman, apparently burned on the site,
after which the cemetery was filled.
8th place: the ancient poisons
French archaeologists who studied Neanderthal sites in South Africa,
found sticks and primitive spearheads,
smeared with poison - apparently the oldest in the world
the poison was prepared about 40 years ago tymyach.
9th place: "Neanderthal kit»
Archaeologist Karen Hardy from the Catalan Institute prepares
make a radical change in our conception of Neanderthals.
After studying the remains of primitive people who lived in Spain about
50 thousand years ago, scientists noticed that the remains stuck between the teeth of some food.
Experts analyzed the remains and concluded,
on the eve of the death of the Neanderthals chewed some medicinal plants - in particular,
Scientists have identified the remains of chamomile and yarrow.
We can assume that this man had a stock of dried herbs,
original kit "just in case", and it is fundamentally
It changes our stereotypes about Neanderthals as great apes,
incapable of intellectual activity.
10th place: Mask of the Sun God
In the town of El Zotz, in Guatemala, archaeologists during excavations
Ancient Mayan pyramid El Diablo found a series of bas-reliefs depicting
Sun God - all the masks show different phases of movement of our star.