What is Silicon Valley
The phrase Silicon Valley has long been a household name, it means the area of high technology (High Technology) - a defined territory on which objects are concentrated electronic and computer industries, research and educational centers, upscale IT-specialists and venture capital firms are not afraid to invest in the high technology.
Dictionary of modern geographical names Yandex gives this definition: "Silicon Valley (Silicone [should be - Silicon - VS] Valley), a journalistic cliché to refer to the valley of Santa Clara, California (USA), to the southeast. from San Francisco. Name is required to pr-woo semiconductors and electronic equipment. Once sel. host. area, the valley is now built up cities that stretched chain from the hall. San Francisco to San Jose. The core of the growth appeared Stanford University Press in Palo Alto, where the 1940s were conducted research in the field of electronics. The first major factory computer was opened in 1956 by IBM in San Jose. C. d. - Personification vysokotehnol. Industry (especially radioel. and rocket) and a high standard of living. Until the 1950s, the Santa Clara Valley famous for its plum orchards ("chernoslivovaya capital of the world») ».
At the request of "Silicon Valley» Google recently issued 288.000 pages, and on request «Silicon Valley» - 1.280.000. Yandex on request "What is Silicon Valley" Outstanding results page - 298,787 websites - not less than 2.372.
The term Silicon Valley - Silicon Valley - was invented by California entrepreneur Ralph Verstom (Ralph Vaerst). His friend, the journalist Don Hoefler (Don Hoefler), unveiled for the first time this term is 11 January 1971 g .: he used it as the title of his articles cycle - Silicon Valley USA - in the weekly Electronic News. In these articles, Hofler wrote about the town of Santa Clara, that south of San Francisco, which focused headquarters of major IT-companies.
Why silicone? Because plants are located in the Valley of semiconductor industry, and as a base material for the production of semiconductor elements using silicon integrated circuit (silicon - silicon).
Silicon Valley or Silicon?
Some Russian commentators zabugornyh "digital" terms suggest the name Silicon Valley, believing that the title of Silicon Valley - a mistaken "in Russian-language sources are often mistakenly used version of" Silicon Valley "(the error is based on harmony English terms silicon - silicon and silicone - silicone, the material used in plastic surgery) ».
Obviously, the word silicone many have not digital association. Formally, these commentators are right, but in Russia have long caught the name of Silicon Valley, it is more usual. But if someone likes to say Silicon Valley - well, tastes differ, we are talking about one and the same! ..
Where is Silicon Valley
Silicon Valley (DM) is located in the United States, in California - in the northern part of the valley of Santa Clara on both sides of the San Francisco Bay. SD stretches for 40 km from the city of San Jose (which is sometimes called the capital of DM) in the south-west to Palo Alto in the north-west.
How it began
Up until the mid-thirties of the XX century the territory was occupied by Valley businesses serving the US Navy. Later, a large part of the territory used by NASA for research in the field of aeronautics.
Creating Silicon Valley due to the following - interrelated! - Prerequisites.
The idea of creating areas of research of new technologies owned by Stanford University (Stanford University). This idea - as always in America! - Was caused by financial considerations: after World War II the University was faced with a shortage of money. The funds for the further development of Stanford University management decided to get on the free land owned by him (3.240 hectares), and since sell this land it was impossible, and the idea was born - to take the land in long-term lease term (51 year) for a modest fee to companies engaged in new technological developments.
Because these companies have created many new jobs have been solved another problem - the "brain drain" - stop the outflow of students graduating from Stanford, in other parts of the country to work. There are special programs of financial assistance were applied enormous efforts to keep young, talented researchers in California, to create conditions for the development of their scientific research, business in the area.
Special contribution in this case belonged to Frederick Terman (Frederick Terman), professor at Stanford University (Terman called the father of Silicon Valley - Father of Silicon Valley). In 1939, Terman convinced his students, William Hewlett (William Hewlett) and David Packard (David Packard) to stay and set up their own company, which led to the birth of such a giant as Hewlett-Packard Co. Hewlett-Packard Company became the first civilian IT-company in the Valley.
By the way, Frederick Terman proposed the idea of putting a university long-term lease of land, thus initiating the formation in 1946 of Stanford Research Center (Stanford Research Institute), and in 1951 was created by The Stanford Industrial Park, - these were, if so to speak, high-tech "incubator". Gradually, the number of companies to develop their business in the area increases. And to top the 70's there were a lot of companies engaged in the research of semiconductors, computer technology and programming.
In Silicon Valley, almost for the first time in such a large scale has been used practice of venture capital, ie, investing in the latest scientific and technical developments that have always characterized by high risk, but if successful, all expenses paid off a thousandfold!
In 1951, a graduate student at Stanford William Shockley (William Shockley) created the first three-layer germanium transistor, performs the same function as the vacuum tube, but who had a much smaller, in fact, it was safer and more economical, but, alas, the price was too high (for the invention of the transistor in 1956, Shockley and his colleagues George. Bardeen and Brattain, William was awarded the Nobel Prize).
In 1954 physicist Gordon Tilu who switched from Bell Telephone Laboratories in Texas Instruments, succeeded in producing transistors from cheap silicon, thereby reducing their costs and to start the process of miniaturization in electronics.
In 1957, eight young - their average age is 30 years old! - Engineers (Gordon Moore, Robert Noyce, C. Sheldon Roberts, Eugene Kleiner, Victor Grinich, Julius Blank, Jean Hoerni, Jay Last), who worked in the Bell Telephone Laboratories under the direction of Shockley, argued with him about what you want to use with semiconductor production of transistors - germanium or silicon. They believed that the future of silicon, but Shockley adamantly believed that for Germany. Irritated left Shockley and Bell Telephone Laboratories - for it later to be called "the perfidious Eight» (Traitorous Eight) - they founded the corporation Fairchild Semiconductor Corp., which pioneered the production of silicon chips. But the most important thing is that the "perfidious Eight" has laid new traditions on which grew Silicon Valley.
What is Silicon Valley
Over the past forty years diabetes has become the focus of world electronic and computer industries. In the 70s and 80s. XX century. are firmly established numerous corporations and factories of the semiconductor industry. By the early 90s. priority activities of corporations diabetes began to shift in the direction of research and development of advanced computer technology, and marketing of digital technology and software. In diabetes are 2, 43 million. People, of whom 25% work in the sphere of high technologies. Diabetes is often referred to Wonderland.
Silicon Valley constitute around 30 cities: East Palo Alto, Cupertino, Campbell, Livermore, Los Altos, Los Altos Hills, Los Gatos, Mountain View, Milpitas, Menlo Park, Newark, Palo Alto, Pleasanton , Redwood City, San Jose, Sunnyvale, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Saratoga, Scotts Valley, Tracy, Fremont, Union City.
• Northwestern Polytechnic University (Fremont);
• Carnegie Mellon University;
• San Jose State University;
• Santa Clara University;
• Stanford University.
Global computerization has brought and brings untold income residents of Silicon Valley. Incidentally, the LED has the largest number of millionaires in the US, so it can be called the Valley of millionaires!
In 1985 - 86 years. Silicon Valley was called the Valley of Death, in the US started a computer paranoia, when the widespread introduction of personal computers has led to a reduction in jobs ...
In recent years, the information revolution (High Tech Revolution) is the driving force of the economy, not only US but also around the world. Industrial growth in the US by 45% is provided by the production of personal computers and semiconductors. And this is the main merit belongs to Silicon Valley, where there are 20 offices world's largest companies engaged in the manufacture of electronics and software. Silicon Valley has had and continues to have a profound influence on the development of high technology in the world.
What is the secret of unprecedented success of Silicon Valley?
How is it that Silicon Valley has become so popular? That transform an ordinary American soil in the global epicenter of high-tech? Hard to say what is primary and what is secondary: the abundance of brains or money? Apparently, everything is interconnected, one complements the other!
- There is competition intelligence with intelligence, capital, capital!
- There are not afraid to appear stupid with his "crazy" ideas!
- There are not afraid to take risks, inventing new and investing in this new!
- There is a struggle with the high spirit of inert matter!
- It does not matter what nationality you are, and religion. Matter what you're an expert, and if you believe in yourself and your strength!
- It works 365 days a year, 7 days a week, 24 hours a day
- Here optimistic about everything that may (or may not!) Happen, and firmly believe that high-tech and submission of a bright digital future of humanity is absolutely true!
... One thing is certain: if a relatively small area to concentrate a large number of highly skilled professionals - scientists, engineers, businessmen ("critical mass of brains and money!") - The results are stunning! ..