American scientists have discovered a genetic mechanism responsible for the size of the tomato fruit
ITAR-TASS / Sergei Bobylev i>
American scientists have discovered a genetic mechanism that controls the size of tomatoes, Tass reported . The study was published in the scientific journal Nature Genetics .
Compared with their ancestors, brought to Europe about 500 years ago, modern tomatoes huge, but scientists have found a way to make them even more. Many fruit crops is generated from special fabrics - меристем. Being able to get huge benefits associated with a mutation of a gene responsible for controlling cell division in plants.
During their study, the authors used two varieties of tomatoes with a particularly large fruits. During operation it has been found that the process of cell division control meristems two genes. One stimulates cell growth, another - controls their division. According to researchers, the emergence of an abnormally large fetuses associated with mutations in the second gene. It is responsible for the production of a protein, which has in its composition three carbohydrate moiety. The mutated gene produces a protein with less carbohydrate moieties that increases the size of the fruit, i.e. a weakening control of cell division.
Scientists say that this mechanism is inherent not only tomatoes, but most plants. For example, similar changes in corn will lead to the formation of a larger number of grains per cob, but in general, the impact of size on the size of the fruit meristem is poorly. If researchers manage to understand what factors affect the growth of the fruit in a particular plant, we will be able to grow the fruit required size a variety of crops.