August 5, 1905 born aircraft designer Artem Mikoyan (1905 - 1970). Since 1939, he headed the Mikoyan design bureau, created together with her colleague - Michael Gurevich number of unique aircraft. Three of them in aerial combat proven its superiority over them with modern NATO fighter.
OKB Mikoyan made the first Soviet jet aircraft - MiG-9. In 1946, the car began to arrive in the Air Force. However, two years later it was abandoned because the aircraft had significant deficiencies. They are continually eliminated and in the shops, and directly into the air regiments. In addition, the "nine" was difficult to master "piston pilots" and is very capricious in management.
Who came in 1949 to replace the MiG-15 is not only rehabilitated the EDO, but was the best fighter in the world at least the first half of the 50s. Not surprisingly, he found himself and the most popular in the history of aviation in the Soviet Union was built 11073 MiG-15 of all modifications. In view of the aircraft, issued under license in Poland and Czechoslovakia, the figure is 15560.
It was a transonic jet with swept wings, equipped with a powerful turbojet engine, the RD-45, is intended for the bombers. Unlike his predecessor, he was easy to operate and undemanding in operation. In the 50 years of flying qualities to it could approach only American fighter F-86 Sabre. But "American" was almost one and a half times heavier, and therefore had a ceiling of 2,500 meters on the lower one and a half times smaller climb. That is, the vertical mobility was significantly worse. Yes, and accelerated in a straight line MiG-15 quickly.
Mikoyan car has passed its baptism of fire during the Korean War by setting total domination in the air. At first, she easily disposed of the piston fighters escorting raid "Superfortress" B-29 over North Korea. After that Americans urgently flown to the peninsula all the most powerful to have in fighter aircraft: F-80 Shooting Star, F-84 and F-Thunderjet 86 Sabre. However, the balance of power is not greatly affected.
Apotheosis happened Oct. 30, 1951, when 44 MiG-15 attacked 21 B-29 on their way accompanied by about 200 fighters of various types. 12 were shot down "fortresses" and four F-84. We lost only one fighter. In the history of the US Air Force entered the day as "Black Tuesday." After him, three days no US aircraft did not appear in the zone of MiGs. A B-29 resumed their activity only after a month.
American and Soviet information regarding the loss of aircraft in the Korean War contradictory. The most objective independent researcher Robert Fatrell stating that all Americans lost 945 aircraft. In addition, our loss had coincide with those given in the official Soviet statistics: 335 MiG-15 aircraft as well as 230 other types are in service in China and North Korea. During the war, killed 120 Soviet pilots and the pilots of the enemy in 1176 (including the crew members of the B-29).
Flight performance of the MiG-15:
Maximum speed - 1042 km / h
Range - 1335 km
Service ceiling - 15200 m
Time of climb at ground level - 41 m / s at a height of 5000 m - 28 m / s
The engine thrust - 22, 3 kN.
EDO overcome the speed of sound, releasing in 1951, the MiG-17. But the flight characteristics of the machine are not permitted to conduct battle at supersonic speed. According to the present supersonic MiG-19 was the ringing at the Air Force in 1953. This aircraft was the first Soviet serial supersonic.
And next - a multi-purpose fighter, the MiG-21 - became the most widespread in the world supersonic combat aircraft. He was armed with 28 countries. And until now operated in 18 countries.
The plane belongs to the set of records. One of them - the duration of production. In the Soviet Union, the MiG-21 was produced from 1959 to 1985, the total number of aircraft was manufactured 11496. And in China before 2008 was made about 3 thousand. Modifications of the MiG-21, known as J-7 / F-7.
MiG-21 became the hero of the Vietnam War. At first fights in the air with the main competitor - F-4 Phantom II - were on an equal footing. It was quite a strange confrontation machines performed in several different "weight categories". "Phantom", being both fighter-bomber and interceptor was "pomuskulistee." He and higher speed, and ceiling. But while turning ability, i.e. maneuverability to conduct air combat with a light and brisk MiG-21 lacked. The matter was compounded by the fact that its missile accuracy did not differ. And MiGs without major problems they have shied away from.
This MiG-21 is constantly upgraded. Increased its speed. And it is very important to win the battle turned equipping fighter in the mid 60s four missiles. Before that there were only two. And the new missiles were homing head. As a result of the heavy defeat "Phantoms" Soviet cars increased significantly.
MiG-21 and had another advantage - manufacturability. In connection with the cost of the most popular versions of this airplane was even lower than the cost of production of the BMP-1.
Flight performance of the MiG-21bis:
The engine thrust - 4100 kg
Thrust in afterburner - 6850 kg
Link to emergency afterburner - 7100 kg
Maximum speed - 2230 km / h
Range - 1225 km
The ceiling - 19000 m
Climb - 235 m / s
The prototype MiG-25 first flew in March 1964. And crystals began to break world records. Subsequently, the highest world achievements and established production machines. Among the 29 records have unique, battered and still - altitude in an airplane with jet engines. August 21, 1977 test pilot A.Fedotov rose above the ground on 37 650 meters.
The MiG-25 was born out of the need not only domestic aircraft industry to produce more and more new aircraft, the characteristics of which shall be continuously improved. It was a response to the new threats of our potential enemy. They consisted in the appearance of high-altitude and supersonic strategic bomber B-58 that can break through the defense and defense to deliver nuclear strikes. The available Soviet interceptors could not effectively confront him on his high-speed and high-altitude performance.
Moreover, they absolutely could not do anything in the sky with an ultrafast scout Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird, which had a cruising speed of 2 8M. Well, the bomber XB-70 Valkyrie (3100 km / h, the ceiling of 23 000 m), do not leave our MiG-21 and Su-15, were then in service, no chance. However, the confrontation with the "Valkyrie" did not take place, because it was not launched in a series.
The designers of the MiG-25 was able to "drive" the airplane to a speed of 3000 km / h and lift it up to a ceiling 23,000 meters. For service it was adopted in 1970.
Airframe design of the machine not previously met in the global fighter aircraft. The MiG-25 is equipped with a flat side air intakes with horizontal wedge, two-keel plumage and thin tapered wing of small aspect ratio. Uniquely positioned and two engines - a number in the rear fuselage. This geometry allowed to find a compromise between the record at the time of high-speed and maneuverability.
Development and test of the interceptor were held in conditions of strict secrecy. It was first revealed to the world 9 July 1967 on air parade on the occasion of the Day of the Air Force in Domodedovo. Four interceptor at low level flight passed over the stands. The announcer said that the new machine is capable of speeds of 3,000 km / h.
For the West, it was a big nuisance. In this regard, even held an emergency hearing in the US Congress. The hearings enhanced the work on creation of interceptors new class - F-14 and F-15. By the way, both are the same as the MIG-25 dvuhkilevoe scheme. But do not hold out a bit as the speed and height of flight.
Flight performance of the MiG-25:
Normal takeoff weight - 37100 kg
Traction motors - 2h7500 kgs
Thrust in afterburner - 2h11200 kgs
Maximum speed - 3000 km / h
Range - 1865 km
The ceiling - 23000 m
Climb - 235 m / s.