Quantum particles may be connected through the wormhole spacetime
Chapter 1: Intricate black holes h4> A hundred years ago, after the development of Einstein's general theory of relativity, physicists still can not deal with probably one of the most difficult problems of incompatibility in the universe. Einstein described the landscape of space-time like a Salvador Dali painting - a smooth, seamless, with no breaks, geometric. But quantum particles that fill the space, more like the creation of Georges Seurat - point, discrete, describes the probability. The basis of these two descriptions contradict each other. However, a new idea suggests that quantum correlations different points Impressionist paintings created not only landscapes of Dali, but the canvas on which they are applied - as well as three-dimensional space around them. Einstein, as is often the case with him, is in the middle of all this, still unfolding our theories upside golovu.Opisanie new ideas, ER = EPR - like initials carved on the tree. It is the union of two ideas proposed by Einstein in 1935. One - Einstein-Podolski-Rosen (EPR), «frightening action at a distance" between two elementary particles (spooky action at a distance). The second - the connection of two black holes through the wormhole (Einstein-Rosen bridge, ER). During the birth of ideas between them in sight no connection.
EPR paradox even hit the pages of newspapers i> But what if we assume that these two ideas - manifestations of one and the same? Then this link will be the basis of all space-time. Quantum entanglement, which is so troubled Einstein, will be a manifestation of spatial relations, cross-linking space, says Leonard Suskind, a physicist at Stanford University and one of the authors of the idea. Without such connections, the space would decay into "atoms", according to Juan Maldatseny physics from Princeton Institute for Advanced Study, co-author of the idea. "In other words, a solid and reliable structure of space-time is only possible thanks to the invisible entanglement", - he said. Moreover, the hypothesis ER = EPR may shed light on the connection between gravity and quantum mehaniki.Konechno not all like the idea (and according to Susskind and should not - it is still in its infancy). Joe Polchinski, a researcher at the University of California at Santa Barbara, circumspect, but interested: "I do not know where it all goes, but it looks interesting enough».
War black holes h4> The road that led to the ER = EPR itself like a Mobius strip, turning in on itself, and recalling pictures Eshera.Nachat possible with quantum entanglement. When two particles are entangled, they turn into two parts of one whole. What happens to one happens to the other, regardless of the distance between nimi.
Juan Maldatsena i> Maldatsena explains this by the example of a pair of gloves if you have found the right, you will immediately know that the other will be left. There is nothing frightening. But in quantum mechanics both gloves and immediately left and right (and everything in between), as long as you do not spend the observations of one of them. What else curiouser - left glove does not get left until you find the right - and at this point they both acquire their svoystva.Zaputannost closely associated with the opening of Stephen Hawking of 1974 the fact that black holes evaporate. In the space of constantly emerging pair of virtual particles of matter and antimatter. Hawking realized that if one particle falls into a black hole, and the other will run away from it, the hole will emit radiation. After a sufficient time hole will disappear, raising questions about the information disappears with the laws of the quantum world ney.No prohibit destruction of information. So the question is - will the information that gets into a black hole, just encrypted, or does it really disappear? Disputes about this led to the so-called "War of black holes" .In the end Suskind understand that all information, which fell into the hole, it falls into the trap of two-dimensional event horizon. And everything is stored in it, like in the hologram. It is as if the information bits needed to reconstitute all of your home and its contents could stay on its walls. Information is not lost - it is encrypted and stored outside dostupa.Prodolzhiv work on the idea, and Suskind Maldatsena started using holography not only for the understanding of black holes, and any portion of space that can be described by its boundaries. Over the past ten years a crazy idea that space - a hologram, become a staple in the tool physicists used everywhere, from cosmology to the superdense matter. "One of those events occurring with scientific ideas is that they go insane idea of a good idea, and then - in a working tool - says Suskind. It has become a routine ».
Leonard Suskind i> Holography has been associated with what is happening on the edges of objects, including the event horizon of a black hole. The question remains - what is going on inside. Because no information can leave the interior of the event horizon, the laws of physics prohibit direct inspection of the internal black dyry.Zatem in 2012 Physics Almheyri, Marolf, Polchinski and Sally - all from Santa Barbara, came to this strange conclusion that it was possible to say - hey Spoken. We do not znaem.T.n. work AMPS (the initials of the authors) says that black holes in general can not be internally as the "wall of fire" at the event horizon will destroy everything that tries to uncover their secrets.
Measuring fire wall h4> The essence of the following if the event horizon of a black hole - a smooth and ordinary place as predicts that (the authors call this condition "no drama"), particles emitted from the black hole, should be confused with particles falling into the hole. But in order not to lose information, particles emitted from the hole must also be confused with those that have long since left the hole and now scattered somewhere around the Hawking radiation. So, we have too many zaputannostey.Zaputannost can not exist between the three particles at the same time - only for each pair of particles. "Polygamous" in the quantum world is impossible, and therefore in the "crater" of a black hole can not exist a smooth and extent of space-time. Breakdown of confusion on the horizon there is the presence of certain boundaries of space - walls ognya.Stiven Schenker, a physicist at Stanford, called the work AMPS «trigger." Physicists like such paradoxes - they are a fertile ground for otkrytiy.Saskind Maldatsena and immediately jumped at the idea. They worked on their complexity and wormholes, inspired by the work of Mark Van Raamsdonka physics from the University of British Columbia in Vancouver. He made an important thought experiment, suggesting that entanglement and the spacetime is strongly related to each other. "Once again, - says Suskind - Juan sent me a cryptic message containing the equation ER = EPR. I knew right away that he has in mind, and we began to discuss the idea of ".They presented their thoughts in the 2013" Cold horizons intricate black holes ", describing the confusion that overlooked the authors AMPS - the one that links the space together. AMPS suggested that part of the space inside and outside the event horizon independent. Suskind and Maldatsena but believe that particles of any side of the border may be connected through the wormhole, and this may allow a paradox. Picture of the work, some jokingly called "octopus" - the set of wormholes come from the viscera to the black hole Hawking radiation snaruzhi.
In other words, no need to invent the confusion that creates strangeness on a smooth surface vents of the black hole. Particles inside it will be directly connected to the outside of the particles, which have long flown away. It is not necessary to cross the horizon. Internal and external particles comprise one, as explained Maldatsena. Octopus combines the interior of a black hole with particles from clouds Hawking radiation.
The holes in the hole h4> As long as there is no certainty that the ER = EPR solve the problem of fire walls. John Presque, a physicist at the California Institute of Technology, said that sometimes physics rely on your nose to "sniff out" promising theory. And at first, "nose" theory ER = EPR «can smell fresh and pleasant, but it still should ripen on the shelf" .However, Schenker argues that the correspondence between the entanglement of particles and the geometry of the gently curved space-time - is a big deal. This enabled him to his colleagues from the Institute promising researchers to work with the challenges of quantum chaos in a way that, according to Schenker, "this simple geometry was clear even to me» .ER = EPR does not describe any part of any space or any confusion. It is suitable for a particular confusion and special wormhole. Marolf, who recently published a paper describing the wormhole with more than two ends, said that physicists know about these limitations. ER = EPR works in special cases, but AMPS claims that fire wall is much broader zadachu.Marolf and others worry that ER = EPR change the standard quantum mechanics. "There is a feeling that this thing only understand Lenny and Juan - says Marolf. But, anyway, in an interesting time for the science we work ». The second part of this article will appear in the journal Quanta next week. I>