The brain is fraught with a lot of puzzles that we have yet to unravel ...
We've said it before, and we will say it again: the human brain - marvelous. According to neurologist Ramachandran Vilayyanura, this "three pounds of jelly that you can hold in the palm," but these three pounds can "contemplate the meaning of infinity, and can contemplate yourself while thinking about the meaning of infinity».
Since this is the most complex organ in our body, can be sure that a lack of strange stories about the human brain - no.
1. Brains at auction eBay
Below - the story with all the makings of a gothic novel, complete with a psychiatric hospital, human organs, and one ghoulish grave robbers named David Charles.
Charles, in fact, not digging graves, but it breaks a few times in the Museum of the History of Medicine at Indiana. From the 1840s until 1990, this museum was attached to the central city hospital, and in the psychiatric ward of the hospital, in addition, conducted the autopsy. After the body opened, the brains were placed in a special container and locked in the vault, which later - repeatedly slipped Charles.
Abducting six containers with human tissues, Charles unloaded their "goods" on the internet auction site eBay, where he sold them to a man from San Diego for 600 $.
Consumers like "collecting strange things." And yet he had a "code of ethics».
He was not averse to violate federal law on the purchase of human organs, and it - not really care policy violation eBay auction for buying body parts, but he - there were problems with the purchase of stolen property. Because neither Charles nor his broker at the auction not smart enough to remove labels from containers museum with brains.
Seeing that something goes wrong, the buyer from San Diego notified authorities. Track the seller on eBay, Indianapolis police officers prepared a trap operation. Charles recently kidnapped more than 60 brains, and the plan of the operation was to Charles - met with his friend on eBay at a local "Dairy Queen».
December 16 policemen arrived at the parking lot of the restaurant successfully detained "Igor" from Indiana (Igor - a character from the movie "Frankenstein").
2. Operation of the skull using a cordless drill
Marian Dolishniy died. Because of the enormous size of the tumor, he suffered seizures and you had something to do with it, with fast, otherwise - he could go blind. Unfortunately for Dolishniy, he could not just visit a local hospital, and sign up for the operation. It was the year 2007 Dolishniy - lived in Ukraine, poorly funded health care system, it was a bureaucratic maze and mess. No one could remove the tumor, and it was very bad, but suddenly announced one elderly British superhero, and saved the day.
One of the best neurosurgeons UK, Henry Marsh, visited Ukraine at least twice a year since the early 90's. After meeting people with massive tumors in the brain, Marsh realized that he could not fly back home, and just forget about what I saw. So he sent some Ukrainian doctors obsolete stocks from his hospital in Tooting. And what's more, he began to offer their services for free.
That's the way met Marsh and Dolishniy. But the fact that Ukrainian was great surgeon does not mean that the operation - will be easy. Marsh did not have access to cutting-edge equipment that was needed for this kind of procedures. Nevertheless, the best doctors - as musicians. They are talented, passionate and able to improvise on the fly. Marsh went to a local store for $ 67 and bought a cordless drill battery. And then he began to operate gadget you - keep in the tool box.
Insanely just what Dolishniy - awake during all this. No qualified anesthetists was not around, so Marsh just use local anesthesia. And since Dolishniy was conscious all the time Marsh spoke to him, to be sure that he - not drilled male brain.
Battery drill sat before Marsh could finish the procedure. Less experienced surgeon - would panic, but Marsh - continued to work, he completed the operation manually, and saved Dolishniy life.
3. The Strange History of ancient brain
Your brain - it is 60% fat, and because of all this fat brain - the first body, which disappears after you die. That's why archaeologists find so many skulls, and so few brains. Most of them are converted into liquid well before we dig them.
Not so often, scientists find brain age is several thousand years. For example, brain tissue oldest ever discovered about 8,000 years, they have been found in western Florida, preserved under a thick layer of peat. But they are - not as old as their counterparts from the New World. Ancient brains of Europe - are fraught with far more interesting stories.
Our first terrible story - a story Heslingtonskogo Brain, the oldest known brain Britain. In 2008, the University of York has expanded its campus when someone accidentally bumped into a few pits dated to the Iron Age. Looking around, archaeologists found one opening, which was a skull, jaw, and a pair of cervical vertebrae belonging to the deceased person. When opened the skull, scientists found yellow, shrunken remains of the brain that was 2500 years old. Moist environment keep the brain from decay. Markings on the vertebrae indicated that the owner of the body - was hanged, and then - beheaded, possibly within a ritual murder.
Slightly less terrible is the story of the Turkish brain age in 4,000 years, found in Bronze Age settlement called Seytomer Hoyyuk. This brain looks like a charred chock that someone pulled out of the fire. Perhaps he belonged to some unfortunate Turk who intended to do some in the business, when an earthquake destroyed his village, bringing down rain down from the stone boulders. Then a fire broke out which burned everything and cook above the brain in its own juice.
Although the "bubbling brain" - it sounds disgusting, but the rapid evaporation of the liquid in combination with nutrient-rich soil, and in conjunction with the removal of oxygen during combustion, has led to the fact that this chargrilled body - survived for thousands of years.
4. A woman who remembers everything
Can you remember where you were in a randomly selected day 30 years ago? Say, in the afternoon, September 20, 1985? Even assuming that you have already lived then, chances are that you will have a memory space, but Jill Price - remembers the day well. She was wearing a big hat, and she ate the chicken with garlic along with his father in one of her favorite restaurants. And if you choose some other random day, she would be able to do exactly the same thing, because Jill Price - remembers everything.
Jill - a very rare disease, which is called "gipertimestichesky syndrome." It was he who gives her super-power memory. Although scientists are still trying to understand the mind of Jill, they believe that it "elephant memory" does something with several areas of her brain that makes her brain is three times stronger than the average.
Due to its features of the brain, Jill can remember everything that happened between her 9th and 15th birthdays. And what then? It - can not forget anything, even if trying. But strangely enough, if you ask her to memorize a poem, then it probably will not be able to do so. Semantic memory Jill is not so strong, but its episodic memory, which stores personal experiences and emotions - perfect. And it is - a really big problem.
In addition to the interesting facts in his memory, and Jill remembers every terrible event that has ever happened to her, as if it happened yesterday. It's hard, especially if Jill thinks about loved ones who have died. "I do not look into the past at some distance," she said once. "This is - like an endless, chaotic film that completely crushed me. And there is no stop button. "
5. "Hugo" rewire the human brain
Imagine a world as flat as a two-dimensional panel. Here - there is a deep perception. When you pour a glass of water, and look down - you will not know that the glass is full, as long as the water is not spilled. Trees - is nothing more than a flat patterns, mixed somewhere in the background.
This is - the world in which Bruce Bridgeman lived for 67 years until Martin Scorsese has not changed his life.
Bridgeman - a neuroscientist at the University of California, and until 2012 he was one of the 5-10% of people suffering from "stereoslepoty" - that is, from the inability to see in three dimensions. Bridgeman case further exacerbated variables ekzotropicheskim strabismus. In other words, his eyes - could wander independently. Since he could focus only one eyeball at a time, he was never able to see with both eyes at once, and depth perception - it was impossible.
Then, in 2012, everything changed. Bridgeman and his wife went to see the film "Hugo" Martin Scorsese in 3D. Despite the fact that it - would not bring him any good, Bridgeman bought stereo glasses, and sat down to watch the picture. And as soon as the movie started, the image - jumped off the screen. Suddenly everything became alive and vibrant. People and objects - really started to stand out from the background.
What is even more surprising - when Bridgeman went outside, he still could not see in 3D. Lampposts - were no longer just part of the background, and the tree is surprisingly "large three-dimensional sculpture».
Scientists believe that Bridgeman - vsgeda was the ability to see in three dimensions, and his brain - just needed a "wake-up call." As he stared at the screen for 128 minutes, his eyes - focused on the film, and suddenly portion of the cerebral cortex responsible for visual perception, "snapped».
Obviously, the three-dimensional movies can work as a medicine is not for everyone. Someone needs a corrective surgery, someone spends long hours on therapy, but neither one nor the other will never see the world in all its splendor.
6. The person who could say only one word
Born in 1809, Louis Victor Leborn for years struggled with epilepsy before things got worse. At the age of 30 years Leborn lost the ability to speak. He could only say one word: "Sunburn". If you asked his name, he would say: "Tan Tan". If you asked about his favorite food, he would say: "Tan Tan". If you asked him what time he would say: "Tan Tan", but he would show you the correct time, using their fingers. Louis Leborn - was not stupid. He could not speak.
Unable to communicate, Leborn checked into a Paris hospital, where he spent his life in '21. It turned into a very nasty person. He tersely argued with hospital staff, and even steal on occasion. If Leborn was particularly angry, he could throw a few swear words to others, although he never cursed before, when he was calm and restrained.
Everything got worse when his right arm and leg were suddenly paralyzed. Having lost faith in their own strength, Leborn remained in bed for seven years, and in 1861 he developed a terrible case of gangrene on his right side. Hoping to save Leborna, the hospital transferred him to a surgeon Paul Broca. But the operation was too late and Leborn - died April 17th. He was 51 years old. However, his brain - still plays an important role in the world of neuroscience.
After studying brain Leborna, Broca discovered a malignant lesion of the frontal lobe of the left hemisphere, this region later be called "Broca's area". After performing additional biopsies on several such patients, doctors realized that he had found something serious. Until that time, scientists have already argued that some parts of the brain - the control certain functions of the human body. Now Brock has received proof that the frontal lobe of the left hemisphere - controls speech.
It was also found that this area - also divided into several regions responsible for functions such as spoken words, and language comprehension. This explains why Leborn understand many words, like anyone else, but to say he could - only one.
Brock - qualified for the award because of his discovery revolutionized neurology. A brain Leborna now - floating in the bank at the Museum Dyupyutrena in Paris, and anyone can come and visit it.
7. Teeth of the brain and brain feet
In early 2014, the four-month baby from Maryland was on the front pages of newspapers because of the very unusual brain tumor. During surgery, the surgeon found that the child - karniofaringoma (pituitary tumor progress), and she is growing due to the same cells that make up our teeth. In fact, it had teeth growing in the brain of the child. Doctors - safely removed "toothy" tumor, but it was not the first case of its kind.
In the year 2008, in Colorado, the doctors examined Eskyubl Tiffany and her unborn baby Sam, who suffered from a brain tumor. After induction of labor, doctors took Sam in the operating room, and what happened then - like a scene from a horror movie. When Dr. Paul Grubb (Paul Grabb) cut the tumor from the head of Sam jumped a human foot. When the surgeon finally coped with the shock, they dug a little deeper, and actually - found a hand, and even hips.
Most doctors believe that Sam - suffers from a teratoma is a tumor that is capable of producing creepy body parts where they should not be. No matter how awful it sounds, but it is - the most "convenient" theory of all the above doctors. Other doctors suspect that Sam is in a state known as a "fetus Ying feta" (lat. Fetus in fetu - fruit in the fruit), meaning it can be absorbed directly into the womb, as his twin - Sam eats like a human parasite.
8. A person who loves Johnny Cash
"Mr. B" - a 59-year-old Dutchman, who for 40 years struggled with serious obsessive-compulsive disorder. Desperate to recover, he agreed to try deep brain stimulation, treatment involves surgical implants beating brain electrocution.
Mr. B had hoped that the shock therapy worked, significantly reducing its disorder, depression and anxiety. However, the treatment gave a very strange side effect. It made it into the world's biggest fan of Johnny Cash. Before surgery, Mr. B was a regular listener who liked the Dutch music, as well as "The Beatles" and "Rolling Stones". But after treatment, Mr. B bought a CD-ROM of Johnny Cash, and each DVD-ROM, to which only he could reach. And he would not listen to anything else.
Scientists know this - the work of implants because every time their battery starts to weaken, Mr. B finally stops listening albums by Johnny Cash. But as soon as the doctors reload implants BBC again into her old ways, and is fully committed to "Man in Black" (Johnny Cash album).
9. The family that could not sleep
Italian physicist Ignazio Roiter affinity with one of the old Venetian family in which unattended good doctor there was something terrible, connected with the history of the clan. The first glimpse of a family of horror arose in 1973, when his wife Reuter developed unexplained illness. Suddenly, she lost the ability to fall asleep. Soon she was stuck in limbo, tormented between unconsciousness and waking. Completely exhausted strength, but are unable to relax, she lost the ability to walk, stop talking, and died a year later.
In 1979, another aunt died from all of the same mysterious illness. Suddenly, someone remembered the old grandfather, who died in similar circumstances. Intrigued, carefully looked over Reuter record in the local church, and in the nearest psychiatric hospital. Having found many references associated with unexplained deaths from insomnia, he was convinced that it was the work of a genetic disease. And when in 1984 he died from exhaustion, his uncle by the name of Silvano, Reuter got a chance to find out everything for sure.
Reuter took the brains of men, and took the two American specialists. After analyzing the body, Dr. Pierluigi Gambetta found in the brain - a plurality of small holes. According the second doctor, Stanley Prasinera, gene mutation provoked, was activated with the wrong group of proteins inside information, called "prions».
These "rogue" molecules obtained characteristics of the virus, and then - began to infect other proteins, making the brain a combat zone, and blocking important body functions, such as sleep.