In October 2013 began a world rent the movie "Gravity." Its setting - near-Earth space with AD fantastically well painted space stations. This is not some fictional future, the screen flashed existing and planned space stations and shuttles disposable ships. The film was praised by critics. At the same time it contains a huge number of sharply glaring technical errors. This post is - an attempt to collect them. Under the cut contains all possible spoilers of the film
The problems begin with the title. Almost all the time the characters on the screen is performed in the orbit where they practically do not experience the effects of gravity while in free fall. The plot of the film consists of two completely unrealistic overshooting to the space station is not designed for this engine. Orbital Physics is absent and even contradicts its own assumptions. In the film, only two of the actor, all other faces and voices are passive and do not affect the story.
The opening scene is made up of the service the space telescope "Hubble" in the fictional space shuttle "Explorer" in the mission STS-157. This number is much higher than the actual number of shuttle flights (the last number was STS-135). The name of the machine sweetly and beautifully, it may be a reference to the точной copies shuttle , which can be found in Houston. We are introduced to two characters.
Matt Kowalski (played by George Clooney) - an experienced astronaut, who makes the last space flight in his career. Last stereotyped character. Good astronaut has to be Texan and central Texas inhabited by descendants of Germans, Czechs and Poles. Kowalski - the second most popular Polish name. His first name - Novak - already occupied by a real astronaut Lisa Nowak . Or maybe it's a tribute to any employee of NASA, for example, Robert Kowalski .
Clooney dissects the surrounding area, it is useless wasting their resources and fuel spacesuit backpack. And in vain, after a few minutes it would be very handy. The film depicts a fictional continuation of the Manned Maneuvering Unit . Manned maneuvering unit last tested only in 1984. Later it was abandoned. "Gravity" as easily blends technology 80s with the modern. Characteristics of the device depicted surpass real opportunities. In reality, the movement is very slow.
Video example of the work of real MMU em>
Clooney is keen to break the record of Анатолия Solovyov duration work in open space. He tells stories of his personal life to operators in Houston and listens country. In the latter easily see sending the film" Dark Star ". Sometimes the music interferes with another, he is asked to turn it off. It is not helping others - he is allowed to just" enjoy the last flight. "Clooney even flirting with other crew members. Communication between the Earth and an astronaut can be informal, perhaps even a little joke. But the reality of the film again exaggerated . Probably disclose the nature could be without this conspicuous lack of professionalism .
The camera pans to Dr. Ryan Stone (played by Sandra Bullock). Despite the man's name, in the suit is a woman - "Daddy wanted a boy." It is only six months preparing for the flight. To exit the real space it takes years of training. Stone - a doctor, she has developed a tool, now it it sets. Real Instruments "Hubble" developed by individual companies and cost significant amounts of money. Perhaps it is the project manager or key figure, but in the film it is not reported.
In the film, Bullock called mission specialist. It seems that this name mistakenly cited the real position payload specialist , ie специалист payload . This technical experts in support of the payload to be screened outside the traditional search process NASA astronauts. These passengers, who are engaged in science, their increasingly taught not to touch anything.
Someone with experience Bullock would never not released into space, the more would not be allowed to touch the telescope costing several billion dollars. In the future, it becomes clear that these two did not know each other. Clooney asks why the character Bullock man's name. These people had to pass a long workout together and understand each other perfectly.
MMU has only Clooney. There is another version of jetpack - SAFER , it is smaller and has a smaller amount of fuel. SAFER is intended only for emergencies. None of the crew members SAFER not. The open space is also the third astronaut who has openly played - he feels the rope fastening strength. He later dies. The camera does not come close to him until death, so that the viewer does not feel any emotional attachment. We were just shocked his disfigured face.
After this brief introduction begins action. The Russian side is destroying the satellite. Houston learns about it from Command aerospace defense of North America. In orbit is two stations and the shuttle, but Russia did not notify the danger. This lunge there is something political. The debris caused a chain reaction, they reach the "Explorer" and destroy it.
Illustration altitude orbits of various objects em>
Many satellites were destroyed. Operator NASA says it will be lost and the connection with the "Explorer." This makes it possible to assume that the system had been affected by satellite tracking of objects and data ( Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System ) in geostationary orbit (about 36 000 km above sea level). "Hubble" is located at an altitude of about 550 km. Do not agree not only height but also inclination orbits . Capcom brings outright nonsense that satellite debris quickly rise to the height of "Explorer". These satellites were far above the hook.
inclination of the orbit of the ISS, "Hubble" and the satellite tracking system objects and data em>
In "Gravity" incorporated what are called model dimensional space and близких space objects . All units and ships are located very close to each other on a flat surface. Do not use many of the features of three-dimensional space. The concepts of orbital inclination exists. In "Gravity" concepts orbit is not at all the objects just hang over the Earth for an unknown reason. These assumptions and uncertainties can be added deliberately. Screenwriters can be understood - they need to create a story, to which people come to see. But at some point the film begins and contradict himself. The orbital period of the ISS and other devices at this altitude is about 90 minutes. The film concludes from this that the next meeting with fragments happen in exactly half an hour. But the fragments move against ISS motion with the same speed, so the meeting should happen in ≈45 minutes. Space debris somehow moves from east to west, although most of the satellite is moving from west to east. However, this can be explained by the fact that the satellites, moving from east to west, often designed to fotonablyudeniya, and therefore it was decided to knock one of them.
After the birth we quickly assimilate the mechanics of movement of bodies on Earth. For example, we understand the concept of inertia. We are able to apply this knowledge in the world of movies and video games. Moreover, we are even able to absorb non-existent laws fictional worlds. In the game Portal is easy to remember, as the speed of movement does not change when passing through the portals. You can put a portal somewhere at the bottom of a cliff, and the other is located next to each other, and the first to jump to soar skyward. But few of us are faced with the mechanics of the motion of bodies in orbit. It can bring its own surprises and confusing. For example, if the object is in an orbit close to the Earth, the rotation speed will increase.
You can continue the analogy with video games. How claims XKCD comic author Randall Monroe, no physics training at school and university or work at NASA did not help him to understand the orbital mechanics. Enlightenment came only after playing Kerbal Space Program. To reach the station you need to change the parameters of the orbit: altitude, inclination, probably need фазирование. Clooney just aim at the direction of the station, and includes engines MMU. Spacecraft in the world "Gravity" just hang because it did not even lays anticipation. It's more like swimming between the two submarines under the water than on the action in space.
Clooney catches Sandra, who was thrown from a damaged "Explorer" and touches on a leash. Later they fly together, ignoring the concept of center of mass, which is to change the stability of the MMU. Together they returned to the shuttle. The corpses of the rest of the crew had froze, obeying the classical notion of the cold space. In reality, this process can take hours. Hereinafter, for 20 minutes, the oxygen is about to end. Its level is projected directly into the helmet from your computer to suit the chest. In reality, such a function no . Helmets are also completely transparent to the actors' faces were easier to see. (When shooting carried out, the person in space suits were not closed by anything. The glass was painted later.)
Real Display and Control Module em>
At MMU would never have had enough fuel to maneuver to the ISS. Δv the device is only 25 m / s for the increased weight of the load of two people is less than the value. "Hubble" was originally designed taking into account the flight maintenance and replacement of equipment. He has more than 25 years in orbit. Catastrophe "Columbia" has called into question last mission. One of the arguments against was the fact that the shuttle will not be able to perform at a flight to flight, "Hubble" and then when it detects violations of heat-shielding layer to return the crew to the ISS for further evacuation. The shuttle would not have enough fuel to perform this maneuver. Perhaps Clooney should separate one of the engines of системы orbital maneuvering «Explorer» and ride it. This is not much would increase the degree of madness - Bullock later fly on the fire extinguisher.
The couple arrives at the ISS. Here, the fuel in the knapsack Clooney at the right time ends. It would be wiser not to waste it on empty flights for fun, but it was too late to regret. The configuration of an existing station richer. Bullock beating of stunningly beautiful painted modules of the ISS. Some strikes suits accounted for helmets that could break. Including Sandra hurt the American segment of the solar panels. Chances defeat direct current voltage of about 140 volts.
The result of arcing on solar panel em>
In order to avoid the breakdown, the ISS box set titled Plasma Contactor Unit.
The biggest criticism is always a moment when hung Clooney, Bullock pulling their own weight. By the time a visually noticeable that they stopped. Astronaut asked to let him go.
No woman could not let go of George Clooney to certain death. Even astronaut. Even in space. Therefore, he has to disconnect the cable yourself. He slowly slipping away from the station.
Although unknown force drag away into the distance Clooney, Bullock can still hear his voice with the radio system. Clooney tells the plan of action, mangling pronunciation of the word "Union". He calls FGB "dawn." NASA module so called only in the department of public relations. In particular, he instructs the MD of the symptoms of poisoning with carbon dioxide.
Grasp Bullock may vary depending on the needs of the plot, easy to go beyond the capabilities of human hands and gloves suit. Mobility in space suits often exceeds the norm. Bullock opened the airlock hatch. The gas flow abruptly drops it. Probably, someone closed the hatch between the airlock and the rest of the station, otherwise all would be leaking ISS.
ISS crew evacuated. But on a deserted station was quite workable "Soyuz TMA-14M." For unknown reasons, his tanks are empty. To lift the ISS because of the constant braking used "progress" and, in the past, European trucks ATV. Adjust the ISS orbit by this "Union" could not be also because the truck is to be docked to the module "Zvezda". In the film, this node is already occupied by the European ATV. Always docked to the ISS, "Unions" by the number of crew members, one for three, two to six people. You can not just leave the ship for a stock - they have a limited shelf life, they would have to regularly change that expensive. Scenario in which the remains siding salvation does not exist. Perhaps the crew performed work station behind, but died for some other reason (for the time the wreckage has not yet reached the ISS). This could also explain the gateway ready to accept Bullock. But in the film with a budget of one hundred million no hint of it there.
Sandra takes off the suit without much difficulty, although it's not the easiest process. It is in the form of an embryo, filling the film ostentatious symbolism. A stunningly recreated work stations and a plurality of primitive artists contradicts story about a mother who lost a child. Beautiful renderings in stark contrast with the simple story that do not show, and tell meager replicas of heroes. Bullock suspended well, the viewer creates a good sense of microgravity. But the hair on the ropes hang impossible, so they lie neatly.
The Italian astronaut Samantha Kristoferotti has about the same length of hair that Bullock in the movie. In this photo the head of Sam especially fluff. Photo from microblog . em>
For a woman of about fifty feet from Bullock good. Also, the scene is somewhat similar to the ending of "Alien." But under the spacesuit to be a special suit for heat transfer and disposal of waste. Sandra worked for a few hours (and before the required training hours and more), and completely exhausted the resource suit, but no trace of waste. No special costume during spacewalks easy to lose consciousness.
Garrett Raizman after working in open space em>
Bullock flies beautifully recreated on the environment of the ISS, while maintaining the illusion of microgravity. As before, the work of artists at the height of : laptops have the required types and on their screens - quite realistic graphics. Sandra tries unsuccessfully to contact the earthly services.
Shards move slowly so that they can be seen, although in reality see them as difficult as flying bullet. Space debris is moving ten times faster than bullets - a typical speed collision is 10 km / s. Large shards for the same reason visibility. In reality, fragments of a size было be very easy to spot ground-based monitoring services. Real space debris is several times smaller, it moves quickly. All that can be seen - it inflicted damage.
At the station begins a spectacular fire. It spreads very quickly, although the ISS little something to burn. Bullock goes to the "Union", he captures with a fire extinguisher. Earlier, she said that each time failing a landing in the "Union." Training in the "Union» get only members of the ISS crew.
Even if visitors of the ISS and prepare to fly to the "Union" in the Cosmonaut Training Center Yuri Gagarin in Star City, their role is secondary.
Clooney manages to drink from a glass bottle in microgravity.