Mariana Trench, or the Mariana Trench - ocean trenches in the western Pacific,
is the deepest known in the world of geographical objects.
Trough stretches along the Marianas 1500 km; it has a V-shaped profile,
cool (7-9 °) slopes, flat bottom width of 1-5 km, which is divided into several rapids closed depressions.
At the bottom, the water pressure reaches 108 6 MPa, which is more than 1,100 times greater than normal
atmospheric pressure at sea level. Depression is on the border of two tectonic plates docking,
in the area of movement along faults, where the Pacific plate goes under the Philippine plate.
Research Mariana Trench formed the British expedition ship "Challenger", conducted the first systematic measurements of the depths of the Pacific Ocean. This military three-masted corvette with sailing equipment has been rebuilt in oceanographic vessel for hydrological, geological, chemical, biological and meteorological work in 1872 is also a significant contribution to the study of the Mariana Trench was made by Soviet researchers. In 1958, an expedition of the "Vityaz" established the existence of life at depths greater than 7,000 m, thus disproving the perception in the time view of the impossibility of living at depths greater than 6000-7000 m. In 1960, it was held immersion bathyscaphe "Trieste" to the bottom Mariana Trench at a depth of 10,915 meters.
The recording sounds of the instrument began to transfer to the surface of the noise-like teeth gnashing metal saw. At the same time on the monitor TV appeared vague shadows, like a giant fairy dragons. These creatures had several heads and tails. An hour later, the scientists of the American research vessel "Glomar Challenger" have begun to worry that the unique instruments made of beams of heavy-duty titanium cobalt steel in the laboratory of NASA, which has a spherical structure, a so-called "hedgehog" with a diameter of about 9 meters, can remain in the abyss forever. It was decided to raise it immediately. "Hedgehog" was recovered from the depths of more than eight hours. As soon as he appeared on the surface, it immediately put on a special raft. TV cameras and sonar picked up on deck "Glomar Challenger". It was found that a solid steel construction beams were deformed, and the 20-inch steel cable, at which it is lowered, turned out to be half-sawn. Who tried to leave the "hedgehog" on the depth and why - absolute mystery. The details of this interesting experiment conducted by American oceanographers in the Mariana Trench, was published in 1996, the newspaper "New York Times" (USA).
This is not the only case of a collision with unexplained in the depths of the Mariana Trench. Something similar happened with the German research unit "Hayfish" with the crew on board. Caught at a depth of 7 km, the machine suddenly refused to emerge. Find out the reason problems, hydronauts including infrared camera. What they saw in the next few seconds, it seemed to them a collective hallucination: a huge prehistoric reptiles, teeth, glaring in the bathyscaphe, he tried to chew it like a nut. Recovering himself, the crew led by a device called the "electric gun". The monster struck by a powerful discharge, disappeared into the abyss.
The inexplicable and incomprehensible always attracted people, so scientists around the world are so eager to answer the question: "What is fraught with its deep Mariana Trench?»