Once there was a movie in the world, the actors began to perform in films quite risky stunts, however, with the development of cinema became necessary to replace the actor in complex scenes specially trained stunt double.
Knights rescued divers
In the USSR, one of the first Movie scene in which the actors replaced the doubles, was the fight scene in the film musicians Grigory Alexandrov "Jolly Fellows" (1934). Instead, actors, musicians, waving fists professional boxers ...
Four years later, a similar group "stuntman" formed on the film "Alexander Nevsky" and Sergey Eisenstein. He led a group of stuntmen Gleb Christmas. The requirements for the selection of the group were tough: understudies should have known the art of riding, fencing foundations and be physically prepared. Of the nearly half a thousand Christmas candidates selected in the group, only about 50 people.
And it was not the only task force. The second includes the professional swimmers, divers, who pulled out of the water drowning "Teutonic Knights».
Where are our brave men?
And yet it is believed that the beginning of a stuntman profession was laid in 1948. And a hand in it is none other than Joseph Stalin. Great Helmsman loved to watch a movie at your leisure. One day after watching another western US, Stalin said: "What our directors so can not shoot? Look at the brave people! »
Soon the "brave people" appeared on Soviet screens. That was the title of a film about the courageous partisans. The picture is almost a quarter consisted of horse stunts. For their performance was invited to the famous circus artist Alibek Kantemirova. Especially for shooting the episode with the fall of the horse developed a reception Cantemirs cutting. In total, he has enriched the cinema hundreds of tricks. His trick riding techniques became the basis of several generations of equestrian art kinokaskaderov.
Blow on the mound
Yet many artists continued to play without an understudy. Sometimes these experiments ended in tragedy. In 1961, while filming "Since no one has ever loved" (he was released under the name "Flower on stone") in the fire killed the actress Inna Burduchenko. And in the film "Director" (1965) was killed actor Yevgeny Urbanski.
- And it happened during the filming of the stunt car - says the stuntman Alexander Mikulin. - Then the director of the film instead of stunt invited to shoot a group of riders - known athletes, many of them - the champions, but the experience in a movie no one had. It is possible that because of this and there was a tragedy.
According to the scenario the machine was supposed to jump from a springboard. But no it is not specifically prepared, and it is at full speed and crashed into an embankment. I still do not understand why it was sitting Urbanski. He was not behind the wheel, and the right of the driver. The participation of artists in no way required. At the time of the fall of the driver managed to hide under the steering wheel, sports training worked, and a wonderful actor died ...
Jumping from a height forbid!
Following these cases, the actors are forbidden to take risks during the shooting pictures. "Scorcher" allowed exclusively to professionals. The effects have been introduced "Rules of safety and occupational health at the studios of the USSR", according to which "the execution of dangerous stunt shots (flying in the air, jumping from a height, jumps into the water, falling, and so on. N.) Associated with any risk to life or health of artists, actors should be referred to a specially trained. Otherwise, these actions must be performed by doubles ».
Stuntman and stunt coordinator Nicholas Vaschilin falls from hitting Porthos (Valentin Smirnitskiy) in the movie "The Three Musketeers." Lions. 1978.
Unbelievable but true
Despite the strict ban, many actors want to perform their own stunts. For example, in the movie "Unbelievable Adventures of Italians in Russia" Andrei Mironov, who played him in a major role, all the tricks (including a rather risky) performed without stunt doubles. Involved in the film Italian actors were horrified, seeing that maketh this "crazy" Russian.
For example, in one scene, Mironov at a speed of 60 kilometers per hour and got out of the cab of a fire truck, climbed up on the emergency stairs on all fours and made his way to the end. Overcoming the distance of 11 meters, he jumped off the roof of riding under the stairs "Zhiguli" and climbed into the car.
According to the stunt is a difficult trick, even for seasoned professionals.
And this is not the only trick Mironov made this film. On the set of the actor descended from the sixth floor of the hotel "Astoria" on the carpet, hung over the Neva River at the height of twenty-story house, grabbing hold of the span of the bridge, at which time the bottom of the steamer sailed ...
- There were no computer graphics, - says film director Eldar Ryazanov, - all filmed so naturally: for example, the plane really sat down on the highway ...
But the real feat Mironov began shooting scenes with a lion King. The nature of the "kitty" was difficult! For example, Ninetto Davoli (he played the role of Mario) they do not get along, as a result of the spin actor was badly scratched. Mironov, knowing this, yet refused the services of a trainer and worked in several scenes with a lion very closely. And sometimes the actor did not play a double, but three! ..
However, most of the filming of stunts on the stunt performers covered. And they often risked.
- On the set of the series "Meeting Place Can not Be Changed" I duplicated Beliavsky (Foxx) during the chase on "Studebaker", - says Vladimir Zharikov stunt. - Filmed in one take three cameras. From the impact of the car on the water door jammed. Water began to fill the cabin. I could not get out, tried to open the door, but they did not respond, thinking choke ...
Generally, in this picture Zharikov got considerably. He visited regulirovschitsa that Fox knocked on the turning circle, and the waitress, whose body the same Fox kicks the window in the restaurant "Astoria". During the filming of a stunt now flew through the glass. It was very dangerous. While in Hollywood for such surveys it has long been used "understudy" glass - a soft plastic.
First avtotryuki in domestic film shot in 1966 in the film "Beware of the car" when the passenger car drove a truck.
Often, during the shooting of stuntmen got injured.
- At such moments, the main thing - do not break down and overcome your fear, - says Valery famous stunt Zavadsky. - It was a watershed moment I experienced in 1983 in the amateur rally in the Baltic States.
On the night of his car overturned training - Valery broke several ribs, and from the car was only a pile of metal. The team captain had forbidden him to speak, but Odessa is not obeyed.
- I'm back on the track and in the same year won first place in the stage race in Georgia - continues Zavadsky. - If I had not sat behind the wheel, possibly, my career would have ended stuntman ...
Later in the film "Once upon a time there was a war" in Central Asia, Zavadsky received burns to 28 percent of the body.
- It was a trick with fire - says the stuntman. - I had to burn 15 seconds instead burned 1 5 minutes. Two months of burn therapy, and then - a new job.
Nicholas stunt doubles Vaschilin Vasily Livanov in a fight with Professor Moriarty (Victor Evgrafov) from "Reichenbach" waterfall. Pitsunda Gegsky waterfall on the way to Ritsu. 1979.
- I like to joke, but some perceive my humor too seriously - grins stuntman Alexander Mikulin. - I remember once filmed a short film commissioned by the SAI. It was a moralizing story about how not to behave on the road. The film involved two twin boys, one - "obedient", and another - "bully." In one episode of the "bully" runs out onto the road, and I was going at high speed and I brake sharply before him. Removing one take, the director recalls me aside and asked, "Sasha, and if you do not calculate and really crush the boy?" I told him to tone say, "Why be afraid of something, we also spare the boy is ..." But he it is understood too literally, and the day ended with the shooting ...