Imperial yacht

The only boat that participated in the fighting and in the sunken wreck, the Black Sea was wheeled imperial "Livadia».
Its construction began in late 1869, but the official laying of the ship took place March 19, 1870.

Design and build a boat the famous Black Sea naval captain of the Corps of Naval Architects LG Swedes, for completion by the summer of 1873. The new 4-wheel gun wooden boat on the king of comfort and decoration of the premises it is not inferior to the Baltic "Power", and on registration "royal cabin" in the stern of the boat, and the dining room on the middle deck, the implementation of the project of architect Monighetti even superior to the latter. In the course of construction "Livadia" LG Schwede in 1872 he performed the alleged figure figurehead yachts in the form of a convex oval shield with the double-headed eagle "Livadia" received a figurehead in the form of a two-headed eagle, crowned, like set to "Power".

In the summer of 1873 a new boat, entering the Black Sea Fleet, arrived in Sevastopol, where the empress brought to Yalta with his family. In March 1874 "Livadia" went to practice diving. In the western part of the Mediterranean yacht successfully withstood an 11-point storm, showing excellent seaworthiness. It should be noted that the "Livadia" - the only one of the imperial yacht, participated in combat operations of the Russian fleet. During the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878 under the command of Captain 1st Rank FE Krouna it cruising the Romanian and Bulgarian coast and 21 August sank two-masted Turkish kochermu. Noted two Turkish armored ships, yacht sustained 18-hour chase and successfully went under the protection of Sevastopol batteries. The three-year service "Livadia" ended tragically. On the way from Sevastopol to Odessa it is foggy night from 21 to 22 October 1878 jumped to the reef at Tar-hankutskogo lighthouse on the west coast of the Crimea. 47 days, from October 22 to December 7, "Livadia" standing on a rock. After a series of unsuccessful attempts to save the Black Sea Fleet command ship, everything of value that was possible, had been brought to shore, leaving the body waves of the sea.

It was supposed to build a new, similar victims, increasing its speed and cruising range, but Vice-Admiral AA Popov, at that time, and became chairman of the MTC, he proposed another option. According to the instructions of EE Gulyaev drafted a yacht, having regard to the shape of an ellipse on the basis of Novgorod. Considering this form the starting point for selecting the type of the future of the Black Sea battleship, Andrey decided on a full-scale experiment. It is understood by those skilled not only in Russia but also in England. Thus, the "Times" in 1879 wrote: "... the stability and comfort are the main qualities that were pursued in the design of the yacht, and if the maximum stability is provided in the form of the famous yacht, the addition of armor and possible changes can make it on the basis of the same principle, not less stable artillery platforms. It is no secret that the new yacht has experience ... ».

In addition to providing stability, comfort and safety of navigation, the main attention was paid to the design of the achievement of a new vessel speed of 14 knots. According to the results of tests on Vice Admiral Popov in the Black Sea and the model tests in England to identify the main dimensions of the future yachts with draft 1, 9 m, satisfying all the requirements proposed. To check the data, and at the request of designers and builders of the future, paraffin models her body underwent at the beginning of 1879 a new test in Amsterdam under the guidance of Tiedemann. This very well-known shipbuilder and the chief engineer of the Dutch navy confirmed the conclusions of the Froude and guarantee the achievement of a vessel speed of 14 kt, when the power of the power plant more than 8,500 liters. from. (project capacity was assumed to be l 10000-11000. sec.). The general location of the royal screw yacht "Livadia»

At mid-year, as agreed with the British shipbuilding company "John Elder and K °», the project finalization. In August, after a written statement of the main builder of the firm Pierce the possible establishment of such a vessel, followed by a private resolution of Alexander II to build a new yacht in England. September 5 Pier and the famous Russian figure shipbuilding MI Qazi signed. The terms of this document was not very common. Their essence was to shipbuilders obligation not only to build itself on the Russian ship's drawings, with the installation of its own production of steam mechanisms, but also the guarantee of achieving boat speed of 15 knots. For each undeveloped 0, 1 assembly firm paid heavy fines, and in the case if the ship goes at a speed less than 14 kt., The customer has the right to do, it does not take, and pick up only power plant, for which, and pledged to make the contractual payments in the buildings. If successful, the test calculation of the yacht followed after her surrender. For exceeding speed limits (15 kt.) And capacity (12,000 liters. With.) Builders received substantial bonuses. The latter condition was to encourage firms to create and perfect power plants, intended not only for yachts, but also, if successful, for future Russian ships and the battleship Peter the Great, the machine is, as well, and have a series of Novgorod did not develop capacity. < br />
The period of construction was in English is short: until 1 July next, 1880 Furthermore, during a personal audience with the Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich after signing the contract, Pierce offered early surrender yacht! The work at the shipyard, located in Ferrol (on the River Clyde, on the outskirts of Glasgow), began immediately after the signing of the documents. Appointed oversaw the construction, the author of EE Gulyaev a month later reported on the manufacture of templates for metal structures and complete the preparation of the stacker places. By early November, two-thirds of the bottom of the second set has riveted ... Next again intervened AA Popov, who achieved the highest resolution on the decoration of yacht in England, referring to "the desirability of testing the ship in final form" and the high cost of such work in the Nicholas Admiralty. November 10 entered into another contract: shipbuilders have received, except for an additional payment, a real opportunity to move, if necessary, the term readiness yacht. Nevertheless, work continued on the initial estimates.

January 5th, 1880 the yacht was enrolled in the lists of the fleet of ships called "Livadia", and 10 days received a Commander - Captain 1st Rank IK Vogak (former first commander and "Novgorod" and "Peter the Great") ... 25 March the official laying of the ship; at that time already mounted shell plating. Exactly four months - 25 June, the boat was lowered into the water. The ceremony was attended by Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich (future General Admiral of the Russian fleet and consistent foe A. Popov).

The yacht is docked in Livadia


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